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Flashcards in Auditory Deck (56):
1

inner hair cells

depolarize in response to sound conducted along the basilar membrane

2

outer hair cells

the electromotility of these cells modifies the sensitivity of the basilar membrane (cochlear amplification)

3

Rinne Test: conduction loss

the good ear lasts longer because it has air

4

Rinne Test: partial neural loss

both ears last roughly the same time

5

Weber Test: conduction loss
vibration is louder in the _____

affected ear

This is thought to occur because ambient sound is prevented from getting to the cochlea on the blocked side. This causes the nervous system to amplify sounds on that side by sensitizing cochlear transduction.

6

Weber Test: partial neural loss
vibration is louder in the ______

unaffected ear

7

Range of human hearing (low-high)

20-20,000 Hz

8

weber's test: where is the fork placed?

vertex (middle) of head

9

rinne test: where is the fork placed

mastoid process

10

BAEPS:brain stem auditory evoked potentials

EEG detects neural response to click sounds to assess neural hearing loss

11

somatotrophy of basilar membrane of cochlea:
low vibrations are at the _____ of the cohclea

apex (end) of cochlea

12

tract: decussation occurs at

the trapezoid body

13

menier's disease (endolympathic hydrops)

excess fluid in the inner ear- swellng of endolymphatic sac of idiopathic origin

14

acoustic neuroma

benign tumor of Schwann cells compresses CNVIII

15

tinnitus

auditory perception in the abscence of stimulus

16

ototoxic drugs

streptomycin or gentamicin

17

prebyacusis

loss of hearing with old age

18

hyperacusis

extra-sensitivity to moderate or even low intensity sounds

19

auditory agnosia

inability to identify meaning of an non-verbal sound; can hear, but don't know what it means

20

congenital amusia

tone deafness, *changes* in pitch

21

timbre: brain region

right hemisphere/ cortex

22

music: rhythm/ pitch/ familiarity

left hemisphere

23

pitch (changes)

temporal regions of right hemisphere

24

McGurk Effect

a mismatch between the sensation of sound and visual cue for a different letter result in perception of a third, unrelated sound.

25

angular gyrus

Important for matching graphemes to
phonemes (reading)

26

supramarginal gyrus

Important in matching
incoming sounds to
meaningful phonemes
find individual neurons
specific for different
phonemes

27

arcuate fasciculus

White matter tract that
connects Wernicke’s
and Broca’s areas

28

conduction aphasia

lesion to arcuate fasciculus which connects broca's area to wernicke's area

29

Wernicke's Area

comprehension of speech

30

Wernicke's Aphasia

can produce speech but not comprehend it; word salad

31

Broca's Area

motor control of speech

32

phonemes

letters

33

lexemes

words/ sound groups

34

semantics

meaning of phonemes/ sound groups

35

syntax

rules of combinations of sound groups

36

dorsal stream

localization
superior parietal cortex, superior frontal gyrus

37

ventral stream

pitch
primary auditory cortex
inferior frontal gyrus

38

inferior colliculus

See integration of auditory information
with inputs carrying somatosensory
information from parts of the body

Involved in the startle response to
auditory stimuli and in the
vestibulo-ocular reflex

39

MNTB: medial nucleus of trapezoid body

contains inhibitory neurons that decrease the activity of
lateral superior olive neurons)

40

cohclear amplifier

outer hair cells stiffen the basilar membrane and decrease its range of movement in
relation to the tectorial membrane - this protects the cochlea from loud sounds

41

what is this process: the tensor tympani and stapedius muscles stiffen the ossicles in the middle ear to reduce transmission of loud, low frequency sounds to the inner ear

attenuation reflex

42

amplitude

loudness

43

frequency

ptich

44

complexity

timber

45

sound is heard longer through (air or bone)

air

46

sound is heard louder through (air or bone)

bone

47

timber

the sum of a variety of unequally weighted frequencies

48

somatotrophy of basilar membrane of cochlea:
high vibrations are at the _____ of the cohclea

base of cochlea

49

the endolymph is rich in _____

K+
perilymph has low potassium

50

Tip Links

protein complexes that connect K+ channels at the tip of one stereocilia to the shaft of another sterocilia

51

K+ flows ____ during stereocilia depolarization

IN (due to the high concentration of K+ in the endolymph)

52

prestin

the motor protein responsible for expansion of outer hair cells during cochlear dampening

53

medial superior olive

localizes sound based on time delay

54

lateral superior olive

localizes sound based on intensity difference, regulated by MNTB

55

secondary "belt" areas

cells sensitive to specific combinations of sounds used in vocalization

56

Broca's Aphasia

can understand speech, but fail to produce it