6 Embryology of CNS Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 6 Embryology of CNS Deck (41):
1

cervical flexure

separates the mesencephalic vesicle from the rhombocephalon

2

cephalic flexure

a bend in the brainstem that separates the rhombencephalic vesicle from the rest of the brain stem

3

alar(wing) plate

grows up to form sensory fibers of the dorsal horn

dorsal-ventral organization

4

basal plate

grows up to form motor fibers of the ventral horn

5

neural crest cells

cells at the lip of the neural tube as it closes

6

neural crest cells: neuronal products (5)

1. dorsal root ganglia
2. sensory nerve fibers
3. ganglia of cranial nerves
4. autonomic ganglia
5. adrenal medulla

7

neural crest cells: non-neural products (4)

1. Schwann Cells
2. Satellite Cells
3. Leptomeninges
4. Bones and Connective tissue of face

8

sulcus limitans

separates the basal motor plate from the alar sensory plate, part of how dorsal-ventral organization

9

brainstem: where are the basal and alar plates located

basal plates, Motor, Medial
alar plates, sensory, lateral

10

rhombocephalon

the medulla, pons, and cerebellum: the body's life support system

11

telencephalic vesicle

lateral ventricles

12

diencephalic vesicle

third ventricle

13

mesencephalic vesicle

cerebral aqueduct

14

metencephalic and myencephalic vesicles

fourth ventricle

15

mantle zone

neuroblasts that form the inner-most layer of the brain, numb signaling

16

lateral inhibition

when developing neurons encourage (prevent) neighbors from also becoming neurons

(neuron-glia balance, delta-notch signaling)

17

marginal zone

neuroblasts that form the outer-most layer of the brain, notch signaling

18

spinal chord; marginal zone

white matter

19

spinal chord: mantle zone

grey matter

20

migration of cortical neurons: which layers migrate first?

From First to Last
1, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2

21

radial glia

glia that promote migration of neuroblasts during layering of the cortex

22

BMP

bone morphogenic factor, an anti-neuron signal

23

noggin and chordin

promote neuron formation by
blocking BMP

24

Shh

sonic hedgehog
ventral identity
dorso-ventral organization

25

BMP + Vitamin A

dorsal identity
dorso-ventral organization

26

Retinoic Acid

caudal identity, Hox expression

27

notch-1

marginal (outer) zone formation during cortical development

28

numb

mantle (deep) zone formation during cortical development

29

neurogenin

promote nerve development
depends on notch-delta signaling

30

delta

inhibits neurogenin in neighboring cells

31

lateral ventricles

telencephalic vesicles

32

third ventricle

diencephalic vesicle

33

cerebral aqueduct

mesencephalic vesicle

34

fourth ventricle

metenecphalic and myelencephalic vesicle

35

Rx: anencephaly

failure of closure of the anterior neuropore (lethal)

36

Rx: spina bifida

failure of closure of the posterior neuropore

37

Rx: spina bifida occulta

a type of spina bifida so minor many people don't notice

38

Rx: meningocoele

a type of spina bifida that involves a bulge of the meninges

39

Rx: myelomeningocoele

a type of spina bifida that involves a bulga of meninges and herniation of spinal chord

40

Rx: holoproencephaly

a defect in Shh (sonic hedgehog) ventral signaling that produces fusion of midline structures

symptoms include a single ventricle and eye

41

Rx: statins

disrupt Shh-cholesterol signaling, may result in holoproencephaly