17-18 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 17-18 Deck (19):
1

Worked for years to produce a 28-volume set of books called the Encyclopedia. His purpose was "to change the general way of thinking", by explaining ideas on topics such as government, philosophy, and religion.

Diderot

2

Believed that people in their natural state were basically good. This natural innocence, he felt, was corrupted by the evils of society, especially the unequal distribution of society. Set forth his ideas about government and society in The Social Contract.

Rousseau

3

policy allowing business to operate with little or no government interference.

Laissez Faire

4

Scottish economist greatly admired the physiocrats. In his influential work "The Wealth of Nations", he argued that the free market should be allowed to regulate business activity. Wherever there was a demand for for goods or services, he said, suppliers would seek to meet that demand in order to gain profit. Was a strong supporter of Laissez Faire.

Adam Smith

5

King of Great Britain. Began a 60-year reign. Unlike his father and grandfather, the new king was born in England. He was eager to recover the powers the crown had lost. He wanted to end the Whig domination, choose his own ministers, dissolve the cabinet system, and make parliament follow his will.

George III

6

law passed in 1765 by the British Parliament that imposed taxes on items such as newspapers and pamphlets in the American colonies; repealed in 1766.

Stamp Act

7

government in which power is divided between the national, or federal, government and the states.

Federal Republic

8

the middle class

Bourgeoisie

9

social class

Estate

10

dissenting group of people

Faction

11

fortress in Paris used as a prison; French Revolution began when Parisians stormed it in 1789.

Bastille

12

right to vote

Suffrage

13

time period during the French Revolution from September 1793 to July 1794 when people in France were arrested for not supporting the revolution and many were executed.

Reign of Terror

14

assembly of European leaders that met after the Napoleonic era to piece Europe back together; met from September 1814 to June 1815.

Congress of Vienna

15

a strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one’s country.

Nationalism

16

fighting carried on through hit-and-run raids

Guerrilla Warfare

17

military tactic in which soldiers destroy everything in their path to hurt the enemy.

Scorched-earth policy

18

A popular military hero who had won a series of brilliant victories against the Austrians in Italy. Before long he would outwit them all to become ruler of France.

Napoleon

19

Probably the most famous of the philosophes was Francois-Marie Arouet, who took this name. He used biting wit as a weapon to expose the abuses of his day. He detested the slave trade and deplored religious prejudice.

Voltaire