Flashcards in 18 - Vet Medicine Deck (127):
Dogs are not _____
Cats are not small ___
_____ digestive tract, up to 10 times their body length & "fermentation vat"
Describe their molars
Square and flat molars
-Increased surface area to crush and grind plants
Describe the lower jaw
has a pronounced sideways motion to grind plants
Have what in saliva?
CHO-digesting enzymes in saliva (amylase)
___ length digestive tract (both vegetation and animal protein)
Gastric pH of humans is ____
Describe their molars & incisors
Flat molars and sharp incisors
-For some tearing and some grinding
Saliva contains ?
CHO digesting amylase
Describe their digestive tracts
Short, simple and acidic digestive tracts: animal proteins and fat are quickly and easily digested
What is their gastric pH?
Describe their teeth
sharp - for killing prey and tearing/ripping meat
Describe their molars
triangular with jagged serrated-edged blades
*they do not have any grinding teeth!
How do their jaws move?
Jaws move vertically and open wide to swallow large chunks of meat; do not chew their food
No ____ in saliva
look at digestion and metabolic chart on slide 10
List 3 topical applications
-tea tree oil
List a few oral supplements
-Glucosamine HCl - Chondroiten-MSM
-omega 3 fatty acids: fish vs flax
List an example of homeopathy
What are topical applications used for?
lumps, bumps, raw area, abrasion, scratch, sebaceous gland cyst, wart, wound
Why are topical meds not ideal for pets?
bc they have fur - requiring shaving (inconvenient)
_________ can be extremely poisonous if ingested especially to cats and small breed dogs
tea tree oil
______ are the toxic agent in tea tree oil
What are some signs of tea tree oil toxicity?
When do tea tree oil toxicity symptoms appear?
2-12 hours post exposure
List 4 points about vitamin E oral capsules
-puncture and apply topically
-able to absorb into skin
-no worries if ingested
-apply 2-3 x/day x 14 days
List 3 points about vitamin E topical oil
-not for ingestion
-"Goopy and sticky" so area/skin must be wrapped
-The only food to never go bad or rancid
-Good for foot-pad wounds
What does Consumer Lab do?
-Rates quality and bioavailability of supplements
What is Glucosamine HCl - Chondroitin - MSM used for?
-arthritis/degenerative joint disease DJD
-chronic inflammation including cystitis
Glucosamine HCl better absorbed by ______ than Glucosamine Sulfate
What pets are Glucosamiene HCl better for?
athletic dogs and senior dogs
Do cats get arthritis?
Dose of Glucosamine HCl - Chondroitin - MSM ?
500-3000 mg/day (depends on the size of the animal)
*Add the mg of the ingredients to obtain the total dose
Side effect of Glucosamine HCl - Chondroitin - MSM
-Possible gastro-intestinal upset (soft stool/diarrhea) on high dose so gradually increase dose every few days
What pets are probiotics recommended for?
-recommended for any type of digestive upset
-recommended when animals on antibiotics, during stressful times including weaning, boarding, agility trials, travel
What is an example of veterinary products?
Forti flora (100,000,000 organisms)
What are the human products criteria for probiotics?
-Large numbers of bacteria (1-2 billion organisms)
-High dose (acid pH in carnivores stomach likely destroys some of the organisms)
Dose of probiotics ?
Medium to large dogs: human dose
Small dogs, cats: 1/4-1/2 human dose
What are PREbiotics?
food for the probiotics
-Food ingredients travel undigested to colon
-Ferment in colon, convert to SCFA which then inhibit the growth of harmful bacteria
-Promote and support (feed) healthy digestive flora
-Combine with probiotics
Describe the differences between Probiotics, Synbiotics, and Probiotics
-Food for bacteria!
-Prebiotics are substances that can only be metabolized by the gut bacteria and not the human host
-Synbiotics are a combination of both pro and prebiotics
-Probiotics are active bacterial cultures
List some digestive enzymes
What is Co-Enzyme Q10 used for?
Dose of Co-Enzyme Q10?
Small dogs and cats = 30 mg
Medium - Large dogs = 60-120 mg
Are there any veterinary products that have Co-Enzyme Q10 ?
What is the active ingredient in milk thistle?
Milk Thistle is a ______-protectorant
What type of animals is milk thistle used for?
-For all animals on any type of long term medication
-For all animals with any type of liver or gall bladder disease including gall bladder sludge
Dose of Milk Thistle?
Medium - Large dogs = 250 mg
1-2x/day (SID or BID)
What is the best milk thistle for small dogs and cats
glycerin based liquid milk thistle
What is Saw Palmetto used for?
benign prostatic hyperplasia
Majority of male dogs are ______ and do not have prostate problems
Saw palmetto has excellent effects on relaxing ?
the smooth muscle of the urethra
What is FUS or FLUTD?
FUS: feline urologic syndrome
FLUTD: feline lower urinary tract disease
What can saw palmetto be used for?
-bladder crystals, urinary tract sludge, urethral mucous plugs in cats & dogs
-FUS, FLUTD, in cats, urethral spasms after being catheterized, saw palmetto will unblock it?
-dogs with bladder sphincter spasms after spinal/pelvis trauma
-Better than Phenoxybenzamine (Rx product ?)
Urethra of male cats/dogs
long & narrow urethra
Urethra of female cats/dogs
short & wide urethra
Why is a blocked urethra bad?
If it is blocked, they can become uremic bc they're not getting rid of waste. If they can't pee for a few days, they can die.
Describe saw palmetto
-Large doses are OK to use
-Many human products
-Dried herb: 25-400 mg/kg divided BID or TID
-Veterinary product: Natural Path Herbal Company glycerin extract dose 2 mL/5kg divided 2-3 x /day
-Ureter spasms due to kidney stones ?
Which fatty acid, fish or flax, is best for carnivores ?
they can only metabolize FISH oil
Which fatty acid(s) do carnivores require?
-Linoleic acid (Omega 6) - DHA
-Linolenic acid (Omega 3) - EPA
-Arachidonic acid (from animal fat)
What is the optimum ratio of Omega 6: Omega 3?
-Optimum ratio is now thought to be 2:1
(Many processed foods were 20:1, now about 10:1)
Fish based fatty acids are absorbed and easily utilized by ______
Fish based fatty acids have powerful ___________ properties
_______ (cats & dogs) can readily absorb and process Omega 3's from animal sources
Cats require _______ ______ (from animal fats); they cannot process it from linoleic acid (Dogs can tho)
Vegetable oil omega 3's require more chemical modification to form biologically active substances AND also contain high amounts of _______ _
Which foods have Omega 3 in alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) form
Flax, Walnuts, Hemp, Chia
ALA needs to be converted to _____ and then _____ to be EFFECTIVE
EPA and then DHA
Dogs: Only _____% of ALA is converted to DHA
Carnivores fed commercial diets have an excess of Omega __ FA in their diet.
Excess Omega 6 can have ___________ effects
Carnivores require Omega 3 from a _____ source
Carnivores should NOT be getting a combo of ?
Omega 3-6 or Omega 3-6-9
What is the bottom line for pet owners ?
Buy ONLY fish based Omega 3's, NOT flax
**Do not buy omega 6 or omega 9, they already have enough in dog & cat's diet already
**Add the EPA & DHA #'s to get the highest number for anti-inflammatory effect
Omega 3's are fragile especially to ____ or ____
heat or light
Contrast the Triglyceride form and the Ethyl Ester form of Omega 3's Fish Based.
-less likely to degrade
Ethyl Ester form:
-higher amounts of EPA & DHA
What is slippery elm for?
-diarrhea of any type
-also for bronchitis and cough
Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) says that the the lungs and large intestine are paired
What does the inner bark of slippery elm contain?
mucilage and antioxidants
Dose of slippery elm ?
Dose: Dried herb
50-400 mg/kg divided TID
Infusion of powder
5g/cup COLD water, then administered 1/4-1/2 cup/10 kg divided TID
Dogs can make _______ from beta-carotene (veggies)
Cats cannot make ______ and must get it from liver, meat, fish eggs, diary (or supplements)
Who can and can't make it?
Dose of Vitamin A for cats?
Chronic _____ in pets can sometimes respond to B12 injections
B12 exclusively found in ?
animal products, plants contain none
Dogs & Cats can synthesize _____ _____ into vitamin C
Dose of vitamin C?
50 mg/kg up to 1000mg/day
Side effect of vitamin C in high doses
gastritis and diarrhea
Can cats and dogs manufacture Vitamin D from the sun?
How do cats and dogs get vitamin D?
natural sources are fish liver oil, fatty fish, egg yolk, milk and it's by-products
D2 = ______
D3 = ______
Dose of vitamin D
75 IU/kg body weight/ day
What is vitamin E found in?
wheat germ, liver, eggs
What is the most potent form of vitamin E
D-alpha = natural (most "potent")
Dose of Vitamin E for pets
Side effects/toxicity of Vitamin E?
Animals fed _____/day for months showed no side effects
Calcium must be balanced with ______
Most forms of calcium are well absorbed. Bonemeal oral, non-toxic, do not confuse with ______ ________
What are the essential amino acids for Dogs (10) ?
What are the essential amino acids for Cats (11) ?
All 10 (same for dogs)
*Taurine is available in raw hearts, not cooked hearts
____ _____ supplements:
-often have many of the essential amino acids required by cats and dogs (for anorexic pets)
Principle of Homeopathy ?
"like cures like"
Who invented Homeopathy?
Dr. Samuel Hahnemann
-A system of medical practise that treats a disease especially by the administration of minute doses of a remedy that would in larger amounts produce in healthy persons symptoms similar to those of the disease
-Sometimes described as a "pseudo-science"
-Very popular in Europe
-Many European Physicians prescribe homeopathic remedies
-OTC products, readily available
What is Trauma care?
-She takes it when she runs half marathons to prevent stiffness
-Liquid form: Alcohol base, dilute with warm water to evaporate off the alcohol
What is Rescue Remedy?
-Bach Flower Remedies
-Dr. Edward Bach developed it
-Use high doses, very safe
What are the 3 toxins to beware of?
-Tea tree oil
-tea tree oil must be diluted ______ with water
____ are very susceptible to acetaminophen toxicity
Toxic dose of acetaminophen
10mg/kg body weight
*average cat weights 5-6 kg
How is acetaminophen toxic to cats?
-Met-hemoglobin is formed: cannot transport oxygen
-Time frame: reaches bloodstream within 30 minutes of swallowing; clinical signs within a few hours
Clinical signs of acetaminophen toxicity
-methemaglobinemia (mucous membranes are muddy brown)
Why do cats develop acetaminophen toxicity?
cats do not have an enzyme to metabolize the drug, resulting in toxicity
Tylenol doses range from 80-650 mg, low dose ___ can kill a cat!!
What is Xylitol?
artificial sweetener in gum and candy
Xylitol is poisonous to ____
How is Xylitol poisonous to dogs?
-potent release of insulin in pancreas of non-primates
-hypoglycemia and hepatic necrosis
Is Xylitol toxic to cats?
Unknown if toxic or not, assume it is!