18 - Vet Medicine Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 18 - Vet Medicine Deck (127):
1

Dogs are not _____

humans

2

Cats are not small ___

dogs

3

Herbivore

plant eater

4

Omnivore

devour everything

5

Carnivores

meat eaters

6

Herbivores:
_____ digestive tract, up to 10 times their body length & "fermentation vat"

long

7

Herbivores:
Describe their molars

Square and flat molars
-Increased surface area to crush and grind plants

8

Herbivores:
Describe the lower jaw

has a pronounced sideways motion to grind plants

9

Herbivores:
Have what in saliva?

CHO-digesting enzymes in saliva (amylase)

10

Omnivores:
___ length digestive tract (both vegetation and animal protein)

Medium

11

Gastric pH of humans is ____

4-5

12

Omnivores:
Describe their molars & incisors

Flat molars and sharp incisors
-For some tearing and some grinding

13

Omnivores:
Saliva contains ?

CHO digesting amylase

14

Carnivores:
Describe their digestive tracts

Short, simple and acidic digestive tracts: animal proteins and fat are quickly and easily digested

15

Carnivores:
What is their gastric pH?

1-2

16

Carnivores:
Describe their teeth

sharp - for killing prey and tearing/ripping meat

17

Carnivores:
Describe their molars

triangular with jagged serrated-edged blades

*they do not have any grinding teeth!

18

Carnivores:
How do their jaws move?

Jaws move vertically and open wide to swallow large chunks of meat; do not chew their food

19

Carnivores:
No ____ in saliva

amylase

20

look at digestion and metabolic chart on slide 10

okay

21

List 3 topical applications

-tea tree oil
-vitamin E
-honey

22

List a few oral supplements

-Glucosamine HCl - Chondroiten-MSM
-probiotics
-Coenzyme Q10
-milk thistle
-saw palmetto
-omega 3 fatty acids: fish vs flax
-slippery elm
-vitamins
-calcium
-amino acids

23

List an example of homeopathy

traumacare

24

What are topical applications used for?

lumps, bumps, raw area, abrasion, scratch, sebaceous gland cyst, wart, wound

25

Why are topical meds not ideal for pets?

bc they have fur - requiring shaving (inconvenient)

26

_________ can be extremely poisonous if ingested especially to cats and small breed dogs

tea tree oil

27

______ are the toxic agent in tea tree oil

terpenes

28

What are some signs of tea tree oil toxicity?

-drooling
-vomiting
-paresis
-paralysis
-tremors
-seizures
-coma

29

When do tea tree oil toxicity symptoms appear?

2-12 hours post exposure

30

List 4 points about vitamin E oral capsules

-puncture and apply topically
-able to absorb into skin
-no worries if ingested
-apply 2-3 x/day x 14 days

31

List 3 points about vitamin E topical oil

-too thick
-too sticky
-not for ingestion

32

Describe Honey

-Antibacterial
-Antifungal
-Anti-inflammatory
-"Goopy and sticky" so area/skin must be wrapped
-The only food to never go bad or rancid
-Good for foot-pad wounds

33

What does Consumer Lab do?

-Product comparisons
-Rates quality and bioavailability of supplements

34

What is Glucosamine HCl - Chondroitin - MSM used for?

-arthritis/degenerative joint disease DJD
-chronic inflammation including cystitis

35

Glucosamine HCl better absorbed by ______ than Glucosamine Sulfate

carnivores

36

What pets are Glucosamiene HCl better for?

athletic dogs and senior dogs

37

Do cats get arthritis?

yes

38

Dose of Glucosamine HCl - Chondroitin - MSM ?

500-3000 mg/day (depends on the size of the animal)

*Add the mg of the ingredients to obtain the total dose

39

Side effect of Glucosamine HCl - Chondroitin - MSM

-Possible gastro-intestinal upset (soft stool/diarrhea) on high dose so gradually increase dose every few days

40

What pets are probiotics recommended for?

-recommended for any type of digestive upset
-recommended when animals on antibiotics, during stressful times including weaning, boarding, agility trials, travel

41

What is an example of veterinary products?

Forti flora (100,000,000 organisms)

42

What are the human products criteria for probiotics?

-Refrigerated
-Large numbers of bacteria (1-2 billion organisms)
-High dose (acid pH in carnivores stomach likely destroys some of the organisms)

43

Dose of probiotics ?

Medium to large dogs: human dose
Small dogs, cats: 1/4-1/2 human dose

44

What are PREbiotics?

food for the probiotics

45

Describe PREbiotics

-Food ingredients travel undigested to colon
-Ferment in colon, convert to SCFA which then inhibit the growth of harmful bacteria
-Promote and support (feed) healthy digestive flora
-Combine with probiotics

46

Describe the differences between Probiotics, Synbiotics, and Probiotics

Probiotics:
-Food for bacteria!
-Prebiotics are substances that can only be metabolized by the gut bacteria and not the human host

Synbiotics:
-Synbiotics are a combination of both pro and prebiotics

Probiotics:
-Live bacteria!
-Probiotics are active bacterial cultures

47

List some digestive enzymes

-Alpha-amylase
-Lipase
-Cellulase
-Protease

48

What is Co-Enzyme Q10 used for?

-Heart disease
-Gingivitis/Stomatitis
-Cancer
-Geriatric animals

49

Dose of Co-Enzyme Q10?

Small dogs and cats = 30 mg
Medium - Large dogs = 60-120 mg

50

Are there any veterinary products that have Co-Enzyme Q10 ?

no

51

What is the active ingredient in milk thistle?

-Silymarin seeds

52

Milk Thistle is a ______-protectorant

hepato

53

What type of animals is milk thistle used for?

-For all animals on any type of long term medication
-For all animals with any type of liver or gall bladder disease including gall bladder sludge

54

Dose of Milk Thistle?

Medium - Large dogs = 250 mg
1-2x/day (SID or BID)

55

What is the best milk thistle for small dogs and cats

glycerin based liquid milk thistle

56

What is Saw Palmetto used for?

benign prostatic hyperplasia

57

Majority of male dogs are ______ and do not have prostate problems

neutered

58

Saw palmetto has excellent effects on relaxing ?

the smooth muscle of the urethra

59

What is FUS or FLUTD?

FUS: feline urologic syndrome

FLUTD: feline lower urinary tract disease

60

What can saw palmetto be used for?

-bladder crystals, urinary tract sludge, urethral mucous plugs in cats & dogs
-FUS, FLUTD, in cats, urethral spasms after being catheterized, saw palmetto will unblock it?
-dogs with bladder sphincter spasms after spinal/pelvis trauma
-Better than Phenoxybenzamine (Rx product ?)

61

Urethra of male cats/dogs

long & narrow urethra

62

Urethra of female cats/dogs

short & wide urethra

63

Why is a blocked urethra bad?

If it is blocked, they can become uremic bc they're not getting rid of waste. If they can't pee for a few days, they can die.

64

Describe saw palmetto

-Large doses are OK to use
-Non-sedating
-No toxicity
-Many human products
-Dried herb: 25-400 mg/kg divided BID or TID
-Veterinary product: Natural Path Herbal Company glycerin extract dose 2 mL/5kg divided 2-3 x /day
-Ureter spasms due to kidney stones ?

65

Which fatty acid, fish or flax, is best for carnivores ?

they can only metabolize FISH oil

66

Which fatty acid(s) do carnivores require?

-Linoleic acid (Omega 6) - DHA
-Linolenic acid (Omega 3) - EPA
-Arachidonic acid (from animal fat)

67

What is the optimum ratio of Omega 6: Omega 3?

-Optimum ratio is now thought to be 2:1
(Many processed foods were 20:1, now about 10:1)

68

Fish based fatty acids are absorbed and easily utilized by ______

carnivores

69

Fish based fatty acids have powerful ___________ properties

anti-inflammatory

70

_______ (cats & dogs) can readily absorb and process Omega 3's from animal sources

Carnivores

71

Cats require _______ ______ (from animal fats); they cannot process it from linoleic acid (Dogs can tho)

Arachidonic acid

72

Vegetable oil omega 3's require more chemical modification to form biologically active substances AND also contain high amounts of _______ _

Omega 6

73

Which foods have Omega 3 in alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) form

Flax, Walnuts, Hemp, Chia

74

ALA needs to be converted to _____ and then _____ to be EFFECTIVE

EPA and then DHA

75

Dogs: Only _____% of ALA is converted to DHA

20%

76

Carnivores fed commercial diets have an excess of Omega __ FA in their diet.

6

77

Excess Omega 6 can have ___________ effects

pro-inflammatory

78

Carnivores require Omega 3 from a _____ source

fish

79

Carnivores should NOT be getting a combo of ?

Omega 3-6 or Omega 3-6-9

80

What is the bottom line for pet owners ?

Buy ONLY fish based Omega 3's, NOT flax

**Do not buy omega 6 or omega 9, they already have enough in dog & cat's diet already

**Add the EPA & DHA #'s to get the highest number for anti-inflammatory effect

81

Omega 3's are fragile especially to ____ or ____

heat or light

82

Contrast the Triglyceride form and the Ethyl Ester form of Omega 3's Fish Based.

Triglyceride form:
-higher cost
-higher bioavailability
-less likely to degrade
-more stable

Ethyl Ester form:
-easier, cheaper
-higher amounts of EPA & DHA
-more unstable

83

What is slippery elm for?

-diarrhea of any type
-also for bronchitis and cough

Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) says that the the lungs and large intestine are paired

84

What does the inner bark of slippery elm contain?

mucilage and antioxidants

85

Dose of slippery elm ?

Dose: Dried herb
50-400 mg/kg divided TID

Infusion of powder
5g/cup COLD water, then administered 1/4-1/2 cup/10 kg divided TID

86

Dogs can make _______ from beta-carotene (veggies)

Vitamin A

87

Cats cannot make ______ and must get it from liver, meat, fish eggs, diary (or supplements)

Vitamin A

88

Vitamin A:
Who can and can't make it?

Dogs can
Cats cannot

89

Dose of Vitamin A for cats?

75 IU/kg/day

90

Chronic _____ in pets can sometimes respond to B12 injections

diarrhea

91

B12 exclusively found in ?

animal products, plants contain none

92

Dogs & Cats can synthesize _____ _____ into vitamin C

Ascorbic Acid

93

Dose of vitamin C?

50 mg/kg up to 1000mg/day

94

Side effect of vitamin C in high doses

gastritis and diarrhea

95

Can cats and dogs manufacture Vitamin D from the sun?

NO

96

How do cats and dogs get vitamin D?

natural sources are fish liver oil, fatty fish, egg yolk, milk and it's by-products

97

D2 = ______

synthetic

98

D3 = ______

natural

99

Dose of vitamin D

75 IU/kg body weight/ day

100

What is vitamin E found in?

wheat germ, liver, eggs

101

What is the most potent form of vitamin E

D-alpha = natural (most "potent")

102

Dose of Vitamin E for pets

400-800 IU/day

103

Side effects/toxicity of Vitamin E?

None

104

Animals fed _____/day for months showed no side effects

6000 IU

105

Calcium must be balanced with ______

phosphorus

106

Most forms of calcium are well absorbed. Bonemeal oral, non-toxic, do not confuse with ______ ________

gardening bonemeal

107

What are the essential amino acids for Dogs (10) ?

Arginine
Histidine
Isoleucine
Leucine
Lysine
Methionine
Phenylalanine
Threonine
Tryptophan
Valine

108

What are the essential amino acids for Cats (11) ?

All 10 (same for dogs)
+
Taurine

*Taurine is available in raw hearts, not cooked hearts

109

____ _____ supplements:
-often have many of the essential amino acids required by cats and dogs (for anorexic pets)

Whey powder

110

Principle of Homeopathy ?

"like cures like"

111

Who invented Homeopathy?

Dr. Samuel Hahnemann

112

Define Homeopathy

-A system of medical practise that treats a disease especially by the administration of minute doses of a remedy that would in larger amounts produce in healthy persons symptoms similar to those of the disease
-Sometimes described as a "pseudo-science"
-Very popular in Europe
-Many European Physicians prescribe homeopathic remedies
-OTC products, readily available
-Very safe

113

What is Trauma care?

-She takes it when she runs half marathons to prevent stiffness
-Tablet form
-Liquid form: Alcohol base, dilute with warm water to evaporate off the alcohol

114

What is Rescue Remedy?

-Bach Flower Remedies
-Dr. Edward Bach developed it
-Use high doses, very safe

115

What are the 3 toxins to beware of?

-Tea tree oil
-Acetaminophen
-Xylitol

116

TOXINS:
-tea tree oil must be diluted ______ with water

1:100

117

TOXINS:
____ are very susceptible to acetaminophen toxicity

Cats

118

TOXINS:
Toxic dose of acetaminophen

10mg/kg body weight

*average cat weights 5-6 kg

119

TOXINS:
How is acetaminophen toxic to cats?

-Liver damage
-Met-hemoglobin is formed: cannot transport oxygen
-Time frame: reaches bloodstream within 30 minutes of swallowing; clinical signs within a few hours

120

TOXINS:
Clinical signs of acetaminophen toxicity

-depression
-weakness
-tachypnea
-dyspnea
-cyanosis
-vomiting
-methemaglobinemia (mucous membranes are muddy brown)
-facial/paw edema
-death

121

TOXINS:
Why do cats develop acetaminophen toxicity?

cats do not have an enzyme to metabolize the drug, resulting in toxicity

122

TOXINS:
Tylenol doses range from 80-650 mg, low dose ___ can kill a cat!!

80 mg

123

TOXINS:
What is Xylitol?

artificial sweetener in gum and candy

124

TOXINS:
Xylitol is poisonous to ____

dogs

125

TOXINS:
How is Xylitol poisonous to dogs?

-potent release of insulin in pancreas of non-primates
-hypoglycemia and hepatic necrosis

126

TOXINS:
Is Xylitol toxic to cats?

Unknown if toxic or not, assume it is!

127

TOXINS:
Toxic dose of Xylitol ?

0.1 grams/kg body weight

*Stick of gum contains 0.3-0.4 grams
*1 stick of gum can poison a 5kg dog