Flashcards in 19. Common CVDs Deck (15):
What is the primary cause of death in the U.S.? What % of deaths does this account for?
CVDs account for ~30% of all deaths in the U.S.
What kind of CVD accounts for the most deaths? What % of CVD deaths does this account for?
~65% of CVD deaths are atherosclerotic (coronary artery disease)
What % of all U.S. deaths are atherosclerotic?
What is the prevalence of hypertension in adults? After age 60?
26%, but > 50% after age 60
Elevated intra-arterial pressure
-SBP > 140 or DBP > 90
According to the equation P(a) = Q x ΣR(a), what causes hypertension?
-Too much cardiac output for the total diameter of vessel
-Vessel resistance is too high for level of pumping
What is aortic dissection? Cause, mechanism?
Weak vessel wall --> contents of bloodstream dissect through tunica interna and media --> contents build up b/t layers and begin to block/close the vessel
What is an aneurysm?
Excessive, localized enlargement of an artery caused by a weakening in the artery wall
What is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the developed world?
Coronary artery disease (atherosclerosis)
What is atherosclerosis? Consequences?
Progressive inflammation of arterial linings w/ accumulation of sub-endothelia atheromas, which obstruct blood flow and trigger clotting events
List the Big 5 risk factors of endothelial damage.
-Insulin resistance (diabetes)
-Lack of physical activity
What is the significance of the Big 5 risk factors?
Doubles risk of heart disease
List the unmodifiable risk factors of CVD.
List the modifiable/reversible risk factors of CVD.