19. Common CVDs Flashcards Preview

EXB 112 FINAL > 19. Common CVDs > Flashcards

Flashcards in 19. Common CVDs Deck (15):
1

What is the primary cause of death in the U.S.? What % of deaths does this account for?

CVDs account for ~30% of all deaths in the U.S.

2

What kind of CVD accounts for the most deaths? What % of CVD deaths does this account for?

~65% of CVD deaths are atherosclerotic (coronary artery disease)

3

What % of all U.S. deaths are atherosclerotic?

~20%

4

What is the prevalence of hypertension in adults? After age 60?

26%, but > 50% after age 60

5

Define hypertension.

Elevated intra-arterial pressure
-SBP > 140 or DBP > 90

6

According to the equation P(a) = Q x ΣR(a), what causes hypertension?

-Too much cardiac output for the total diameter of vessel
-Vessel resistance is too high for level of pumping

7

What is aortic dissection? Cause, mechanism?

Weak vessel wall --> contents of bloodstream dissect through tunica interna and media --> contents build up b/t layers and begin to block/close the vessel

8

What is an aneurysm?

Excessive, localized enlargement of an artery caused by a weakening in the artery wall

9

What is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the developed world?

Coronary artery disease (atherosclerosis)

10

What is atherosclerosis? Consequences?

Progressive inflammation of arterial linings w/ accumulation of sub-endothelia atheromas, which obstruct blood flow and trigger clotting events

11

List the Big 5 risk factors of endothelial damage.

-Hypertension
-Smoking
-High cholesterol
-Insulin resistance (diabetes)
-Lack of physical activity

12

What is the significance of the Big 5 risk factors?

Doubles risk of heart disease

13

List the unmodifiable risk factors of CVD.

-Male gender
-Heredity
-Old age

14

List the modifiable/reversible risk factors of CVD.

BIG 5
-High BP
-High cholesterol
-Smoking
-Physical inactivity
-Diabetes

15

What are atheromas?

Intra-arterial tumors