21. Atherosclerosis Flashcards Preview

EXB 112 FINAL > 21. Atherosclerosis > Flashcards

Flashcards in 21. Atherosclerosis Deck (11):
1

What causes atherosclerosis?

BIG 5:
-smoking
-hypertension
-diabetes
-high cholesterol
-lack of physical activity

2

What are 90% of MIs attributable to?

Modifiable risk factors like the big 5

3

What causes myocardial necrosis? What are the consequences?

Sustained ischemia results in myocardial necrosis:
-immediate impairment of contractility
-susceptibility to arrhythmias
-long term scarring and remodeling
-systolic dysfunction

4

How are serum biomarkers used as indicators of MI?

Draw blood --> look for large myocardial proteins that only leak into the blood when cardiac myocyte membranes break down

5

How is time critical in the treatment of acute MI?

Patients who receive thrombolytic drugs w/in 2 hrs have HALF the mortality of those who receive it after 6 hrs

6

What are the main goals in treating acute MI? How is each achieved?

Restore O2 supply:
-stop/reverse thrombosis (asprin, clot-busting drugs)
-invasive revascularization (catheterization)
Reduce O2 demand:
-lower HR, SBP, volume (beta blockers, nitrates, ACE inhibitors)

7

What is the mortality rate of MIs reaching the hospital w/ a pulse?

10%

8

What is congestive heart failure? Causes?

-Heart fails to create sufficient Q to meet metabolic needs of tissues (hypotension; forward failure) OR
-fails to pump away the blood returned it to it (congestion; backward failure)

9

What is the final, common end-point of nearly every form of cardiac disease?

Congestive heart failure

10

What factors contribute to systolic dysfunction?

-Impaired contractility
-Abnormal LV emptying due to high afterload

11

What is the most effective heart failure therapy?

Combined therapies of inotropes (afterload reduction) and diuretics (venous vasodilators)