21. Atherosclerosis Flashcards Preview

EXB 112 FINAL > 21. Atherosclerosis > Flashcards

Flashcards in 21. Atherosclerosis Deck (11):

What causes atherosclerosis?

BIG 5:
-high cholesterol
-lack of physical activity


What are 90% of MIs attributable to?

Modifiable risk factors like the big 5


What causes myocardial necrosis? What are the consequences?

Sustained ischemia results in myocardial necrosis:
-immediate impairment of contractility
-susceptibility to arrhythmias
-long term scarring and remodeling
-systolic dysfunction


How are serum biomarkers used as indicators of MI?

Draw blood --> look for large myocardial proteins that only leak into the blood when cardiac myocyte membranes break down


How is time critical in the treatment of acute MI?

Patients who receive thrombolytic drugs w/in 2 hrs have HALF the mortality of those who receive it after 6 hrs


What are the main goals in treating acute MI? How is each achieved?

Restore O2 supply:
-stop/reverse thrombosis (asprin, clot-busting drugs)
-invasive revascularization (catheterization)
Reduce O2 demand:
-lower HR, SBP, volume (beta blockers, nitrates, ACE inhibitors)


What is the mortality rate of MIs reaching the hospital w/ a pulse?



What is congestive heart failure? Causes?

-Heart fails to create sufficient Q to meet metabolic needs of tissues (hypotension; forward failure) OR
-fails to pump away the blood returned it to it (congestion; backward failure)


What is the final, common end-point of nearly every form of cardiac disease?

Congestive heart failure


What factors contribute to systolic dysfunction?

-Impaired contractility
-Abnormal LV emptying due to high afterload


What is the most effective heart failure therapy?

Combined therapies of inotropes (afterload reduction) and diuretics (venous vasodilators)