Why did Italy stay Non belligerent during 1939 - 40?
.The Molotov - Ribbentrop Pact was seen as a betrayal of the pact against communism, Mussolini used this to not fulfil the pact of steel.
.Not enough resources for full scale war
.Only wanted to attack when victory was “inevitable”
Why did Italy enter the war in 1940?
.Swift victories over Belgium and France for Hitler.
.Wanted territories from the Peace table
.Feared Italy would become a second rate nation
.Propaganda perpetrated him as a man of action
.was advised that France was on the verge of collapse.
What did Italy do in France?
.France declared an armistice with Nazi Germany.
.Italy launched an offensive along the alpine front.
.Italy’s army advanced a few km but was resisted strongly only gaining a small amount of territory.
What did Italy do in North Africa?
.Germany pre occupied with the battle of Britain.
.Italy invaded British Somaliland, Sudan,Kenya and Egypt with the Suez Canal.
.This caused a British counter attack who retook their territory and despite being 1/4 the size took Libya Tobruk and Abyssinia by 1941.
.Resulted in Hitler sending Rommel to stop a total dominanten of Italian forces.
What did Italy do in Greece?
.Italy sent an ultimatum to Greece for territory or they would invade.
.Greece said no so in 1940 Italy invaded Greece enjoying total air support.
.Estimated to take 2 weeks, the invasion force was too small and poorly led, and the Greek resistance knew the terrain well, offering significant resistance pushing the campaign into winter.
.Many Italians surrendered and a Greek counter attack drove the Italians back to Albania.
.Mussolini ordered massive reinforcements however still failed to make gains.
.March 1941 an Italian fleet was sunk by the British after attacking British Cargo
Why was Italy’s army so unsuccessful ?
.Lack of training and resources
.Lack of funding from the economy only 25% compared to German 64%.
.Allied bombing rates destroyed production.
.Lack of strategy
What where the political tensions in 1943?
.Mussolini was blamed for the war
.Workers became more agitated due to; long shifts, rationing and increased bombing raids.
.Fascists unions infiltrated by older anti fascists.
.Relationship with Germany caused tensions
.1943 Italy close to defeat and Mussolini was blamed.
What was the Allied invasion of Sicily 1943?
.1943 Allied forces landed in Sicily and drove back German and Italian troops.
.Mussolini deposed and arrested and first Italian troops withdrew from Sicily.
.Allies took Sicily, while the Axis forces withdrew to the Italian mainland.
What happened when Mussolini was deposed?
.Fascist Grand council voted no confidence in Mussolini
.Mussolini Ignored this and went to the king who informed him he was no longer prime minister and arrested him.
What occurred after Mussolini was deposed?
.Restoration of democracy as the king used the arrest to try and sue for peace.
.Mussolini freed by German paratroopers
.Hitler Put Mussolini in charge of Norther Italy named the Solo republic.
What was the Allied invasion of Italy?
.1943 Allied troops landed on Italian coastline, and took the south of Italy up to Rome by 1944.
.1945 final Allied push took Northern Italy.
.Mussolini tried to escape but was captured and executed.