What was the Mutilated Victory?
.Italians felt they had not been given the territories they were promised, however Fiume and the Brenner Pass which they complained about, were not in the Treaty of London from the start.
When was the occupation of Fiume?
1919 Sept - 1920 December
What happened in the occupation of Fiume?
D’Annunzio lead nationalist coup (2000) troops and Seized Fiume with Allied troops standing down.
.Occupation lasted 15 months when Giolitti sent the Italian army to end it.
.It became a symbol of fascist propaganda
What was the significance of the occupation of Fiume?
.Giolitti’s government was seen as anti patriotic.
.The occupation became a symbol of nationalist defiance
.Showed a weak government and increased fascist support.
What were the main post war political issues?
.Cost of living index rose from 100 1914 to 264 in 1918.
.Value of real wages fell to 65% of 1913 levels.
.Stopped war loans instantly and returned to free market economy, led to bankruptcy and unemployment.
What where the developments for the; rural area, industrialists and middle class, after the war?
Rural area -
.Profited from war food inflation
.poverty for farm workers led to unrest and militancy
.strong socialist/ union support from militant peasants
.war loans stopped/ rapid return to free market, meant lots of bankruptcy
.Strong Fear of socialism and unions
Middle class - .Middle class lost worth of savings .Also feared socialists
When was the Biennio Rosso?
1919 - 1920
What was the Beinnio Rosso?
.Increase in socialist support and Militancy among urban workers due to economic issues after the war.
.1919, 1663 stikes in the industry and 1881 in 1920.
.Increase in union membership
.Fears of a communist revolution.
Why was the Beinnio Rosso a threat?
.Violent clashes (fascists / socialists) over 2000 killed
.Socialist support rose past 200,000
.socialists controlled one half of all local governments
Why wasn’t the Beinnio Rosso a threat?
.After 1920 was a sharp decline in number of strikes.
.General strike of august 1922 was a failure
.Unstructured and fractured movement.
What where the political reforms made by Nitt in 1919?
.Universal male suffrage
What was the significance of Nitt’s reforms?
.Growth of socialists to 32.4% of 1919 election and catholics to 20.5%.
.Liberals lost the majority they once had so had to make deals with catholics to keep power.