What was the main economic policies of the Fascists state?
.Started with no clear view of the economy but later moved towards the corporate state which as supposed to be a radical new method to run the nations economy.
What did the Influence of Hitler and the Nazi’s have on Mussolini?
.Mussolini decided to commit to autarky in preparation for war.
What were the early years of the economy like? 1922 - 25
.Abandoned anti capitalist ideas and supported free trade and Laissez - faire economics, reducing government interference.
Who was the economics minister from 1922 - 25?
Alberto de Stefani
How did the economy change form 1925. - 29?
.New economics minister, gave more power to Mussolini.
.Focused more on autarky and increased independence from countries like the USA.
What was the battle for the Lira?
.Mussolini demanded the Lira be revalued from 150 Lira to 90 Lira against the British Pound.
.Marked a change to a more interventionist strategy.
.Increase in tariffs, regulation of industry, modernisation of the economy.
Consequences of the revaluation / battle of the lira?
.Wages fell more then prices and living standards
.Textile industry went into a depression
What was the corporate state?
.Acted as an alternative to communism or capitalism
.Every industry would be part of a fascist led corporation which would settle, disputes between workers and management, disputes regarding pay, and the need to improve production.
.In each corporation there was representation for the employers and the workers, with a state official there to officiate and come to a conclusion.
When did the corporations start having an effect?
.1926 - 1932 no effect
.Fully operational in 1934
What was the trade union movement 1927?
.1927 Mussolini sided with big businesses and Bottai’s labour charter which strengthened the employers rights and broke the fascist union down into 6 smaller federations under the PNF.
Was the corporate state a success?
.International prestige as countries looked to Italy as a example of success
.All industries had corporations set up by 1934
.Workers represented by fascist officials who often sided with employers.
.Industrialists could ignore the corporation as it was only advised and not lawful.
What was the response to the Great Depression 1929 - 1936?
.Shares declined 35%, manufacturing was down by 14%, unemployment rose from 300,000 to 1m.
.Mussolini responded by authorising more state intervention.
What where the measures to protect the Italian economy?
.Set up institutions designed to protect banks and Italian industry.
.used state finances to buy worthless shares and lend money to keep them running.
Why did Italy commit to autarky?
.Likelihood of war meant it was beneficial to not be reliant on countries, also sanctions from the league of nations regarding the Ethiopian war.
What measures were taken to implement autarky?
.Battle of the grain
.Increase currency control
.quotes on foreign imports
.Search for new energy source
What were the negative effects of autarky?
.low amount of coal & iron supplies found
.Food imports rose to due to concentration on wheat production
What was the battle of the births?
.Aimed to increase Italian population from 40M to 60M.
.eg; medals to women children, better taxes for this with kids, loans for married couples.
What was the battle of the grain?
.Aimed to make Italy self sufficient in grain production
.High tariffs on foreign imports, grants to farmers,.
Was the battle of the grain successful?
.50% increase in wheat production
.Other crops didn’t receive same support
.Not self sufficient in fertiliser which was needed to increase grain production
.Still dependent on foreign imports.
What was the battle for land?
.Drained marshes to increase prosperous land.
.Reduced malaria as mosquitoes couldn’t live in marshes
However; real wages of farmers fell 50%, badly administered and lots of the land untouched.