What was the Timeline of Mussolini 1918 - 22?
1918 - Mussolini served and wounded in the war
1919 - TOV + mutilated victory/ set up Fascist party with many socialist ideas, only gained 5000 votes.
1921 - Mussolini elected as one of 35 fascists, gained 125,000 votes, switched to more right wing agenda.
1922 - dropped republicanism from agenda, called to Rome to become prime minister and appointed PM by king.
When did Mussolini switch his ideas from Anti clerical socialists to a more right wing fascist?
How were the fascists able to go from no seats in 1919, to popularity and 35 seats in 1921?
.Biennio Rosso created fear of socialism, and support for fascist squads among landowners and businessmen.
.Giolitti made deal that resulted in 35 seats for the fascists in 1921.
What was the foundation of fascist policies before 1921?
.Eight hour working day, Republicanism, female suffrage, minimum wage, anti - imperialism, education for all, supporting national strength and glory etc.
How where the squadrismo formed?
.Creation of squads where to counter the “socialist threat”, they; beat up union leaders, stopped strikes, and forced unions to disband, intimidated voters and installed a fear of socialism.
Why did the; Industrialists, Landowners, ex soldiers, working class, Students support fascism?
.Industrialists - Squads stopped strike allowing there factories to run again.
.Landowners - Attacked socialist land league
.ex soldiers - Strong assertion of nationalism
.Working class - Fascist syndicates/ fair wage policies
.Students - provided appealing alternative to the corrupt liberal political system.
How did Mussolini use the squads?
.Asserted himself as leader of the movement with the squad leaders supporting him.
.Provided a rallying point for the fascists
.Portrayed himself as someone controlling them, therefore appealing to the upper classes.
When was the PNF (Fascist party) established?
What was the New program and what policies where involved?
.New Program tried to update policies to suit new middle class demographic, and become less radical. .Policy examples; Eight hour working day, Taxes proportional to income, No references to confiscating property of church, Obligatory military service, Expansion of Italy's influence in the Mediterranean.
What where the Fascist syndicates?
.After the break up of socialist and catholic unions, the fascists created fascist syndicates which workers joined to gain employment.
What where the key factors in Mussolini’s rise to power?
.Economic issues and political unrest; Biennio Rosso/ Mutilated victory.
.Weak government; rise of socialists and catholics with weak liberal party after the extension of the franchise.
.General strike July 1922 (short term)
.March on Rome October 1922 (short term)
What was the general strike of 1922?
.Socialist decision to call a general strike July 1922
.Gave excuse for Fascists to openly attack strikers, and take over the running of trains, also taking credit for ending the strike.
What was Mussolini’s dual policy?
.One hand encouraging black shirt violence, and using them to gain power.
.On the other hand working with established politicians like Giolitti to establish the PNF as a serious movement.
What was the March of Rome?
.27th October 1922, the squadristi and Mussolini marched on roam, although with much less numbers and arms.
.The PM’s government resigned and the PM put power for martial law (violence) in the hands of the King.
.The king refused to use martial law and appointed Mussolini as PM.
Why did the King Victor Emmanuel not use force (martial law) ?
.Italy was approaching civil war from socialists and fascists.
.Not sure army would comply.
.Wanted to restore political stability.