1A Division and Differentiation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 1A Division and Differentiation Deck (17):
1

What type of division do somatic cells do to make more somatic cells?

Mitosis

2

What is cellular differentiation?

When an unspecialised cells become specialised to have particular structures and functions.

3

How do you cells become differentiated?

Some genes are switched on and some are switched off, which means only a limited number of genes are expressed.

4

What are stem cells?

Unspecialised somatic cells which can self renew and differentiate into specialised cells.

5

How do you grow stem cells and use them to treat a patient?

Remove stem cells from a patient, culture them in a lab and then put them back into the part where you removed them from.

6

What are tissue adult stem cells used for?

Growth and repair and renewal of cells found in that tissue.

7

What type of cells develop from red bone marrow?

Red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets

8

What type of stem cells can be described as multipotent? Explain what this means.

Tissue (adult) stem cells. Multipotent mean that the cells have a narrower differentiation potential... they can only develop into cells related from that tissue.

9

Name the four types of body tissue.

Epithelial, Connective, Muscle and nerve tissue.

10

Embryonic stem cells are described as pluripotent. What does this mean?

They can differentiate into all cell types of the body.

11

What form of cell division do germline cells divide by to form more germline cells?

Mitosis (Germline cells are like body cells which are used to form gametes)(they contain 46 chromosomes)

12

What form of cell division do germline cells divide by to form haploid gametes?

Meiosis

13

Name the therapeutic uses stem cells.

Bone marrow transplants, corneal transplant

14

Name some future uses of stem cells.

Treat Parkinson's, Alzheimer's and MS

15

What is cancer?

An uncontrolled growth of cells.

16

Why do cancer cells divide uncontrollably?

They do not respond to regulatory signals.

17

Why does cancer sometime spread?

The cancer cells faile to attach to one another and spread through the body (via the bloodstream) to form secondary tumours.