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Flashcards in 1E Human Genomics Deck (13):

What is DNA sequencing?

Identifying the order of bases in a DNA sequence.


What is the benefit of DNA sequencing?

Predict/diagnose certain diseases, personalised medicine.


What is a disadvantage of DNA sequencing?

Employers/insurers may have access to this information and discriminate.


What is bioinformatics?

The use of computer technology to identify DNA sequences.


What is systematics?

The comparison of human genome sequence data and genomes of other species to provide information on evolutionary relationships.


What is personalised medicine?

It is medicine based on an individuals genome.


What are benefits of personalised medicine?

Increased chance of successful treatment.


What is PCR?

The amplification of DNA (making many identical copies).


Describe the process of PCR.

DNA is heated to 90° to separate the strands.
They are cooled to 54-57 for primer binding. Primers are complimentary to each strand and bind to the complimentary base pairs on each strand.
Temperature is then raised to 60 provide optimum temperature for heat-tolerant DNA polymerase.
Replication of DNA.
(Separate, anneal, extension)


It is a DNA probe?

A short single-stranded fragment of DNA which are complimentary to a specific DNA target sequence.


Do you detect a probe once it has found the complimentary sequence in the DNA sample?

The probe is fluoresced so that it can be protected.


What are applications of PCR?

DNA profiling, paternity tests.


Why is gel electrophoresis used in DNA profiling?

The bands represent varying lengths of DNA which are unique to each person because individuals have highly variable numbers of repetitive sequences within their DNA.