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Flashcards in 1st half Deck (18):

1. What are the stressors associated with acculturation?

• More stress when families identified with one culture and rejected other culture. Better when cultures are integrated


examples of stressors

• Learn new language
• Prejudice and discrimination
• Acculturating: Culture Shock
• Socioeconomic
• Health Care (family issues, health)
• Loss of social support networks
• Change in diet/sleep
• Family Stability
• Social Stressors (Violence, drugs)
• Separation and loss
• Internal Stressors (Disabilities, deficits, post-traumatic stress)
• Immigrant and legal status


1. Modes of Acculturation

• Assimilation: Surrenders native cultural identity

C1/L1 replaced by C2/L2
More positive


1. Modes of Acculturation

• Integration: Integrates both; in research affiliated with better mental health outcomes

C1/L2 blended with C2/L2


1. Modes of Acculturation

• Separation: Self-imposed withdrawal

Intentionally C1/L1 without C2/L2
more negative, negative impact


1. Modes of Acculturation

• Segregation: Separation imposed by society


1. Modes of Acculturation

• Marginalization/ Deculturation: Does not identify with either

Neither C1 or C2


1. What are some of the factors that may influence the development of acculturation?

Age of child
contact with other cultural groups
cognitive functioning
family experiences
exposure to media
community make-up
societal attitude
school members' attitudes


What is the definition of ELL?

• Each state decides what their definition is/have different definitions and what instruments used to assess
i. Was not born in the US, and/or
ii. Native language is other than English
iii. Environment where language other than English is dominant, and/or
iv. Native American or Alaska Native, and/or
1. Have own language
v. Migratory and/or
vi. Has sufficient difficulty speaking, reading, writing, or understanding the English language


Difference between BICS and CALPS?

i. BICS: 2-3 years (Basic Interpersonal Communicative Skills)
ii. CALPS: 5-10 years (Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency Skills)
iii. Relationship between BICS/CALPS in L1 & L2: Transfer of knowledge and skills
1. Sounds of language
2. Sentence formation


Difference between language proficiency vs. language dominance?

i. Language Proficiency: Ability to use language accurately and appropriately in its oral and written forms in a variety of settings
ii. Language Dominance: Most powerful and dominant language


1. What are the “normal” processes in L2 acquisition?
Code Switching

i. Code Switching: When you are speaking in L1 and then start speaking in L2


1. What are the “normal” processes in L2 acquisition?
Code Mixing

ii. Code Mixing: Morph a word so that it introduces parts of another language.
1. Fenca=fence


1. What are the “normal” processes in L2 acquisition?
Passive Bilingualism

iii. Passive Bilingualism: Someone who can listen and make out a lot of what’s happening but can’t particularly speak it
1. May have to do with your exposure to the language
2. Maybe a lot of exposure listening to it


1. What are the “normal” processes in L2 acquisition?

iv. Interference: When you are learning a language but you make mistakes in grammar because you are using a rule from another language.
1. i.e. English-The White House; Spanish- La Blanca Casa


What are the factors influencing a second language development?

• Students’ cognitive abilities and medical history
• Motivation
• Affective: Anxiety
• Practice opportunities
i. Quality vs. Quantity
• Personality characteristics
• Attitudes about adopted culture and second language
• Length of residence in US
• Home and Community Characteristics
i. Parental and community attitudes
ii. Degree of parent’s bilingualism
iii. Literacy in the home
iv. Use of mixed languages
• History of Education
i. Native country
1. Languages
2. Years in school
3. Interruptions in schooling
4. Quality of Education
ii. In US
1. Languages
2. Type of program
3. Quality of program
4. Literacy experiences at home
5. Language(s) of interaction during literacy experiences
6. Access to quality programs


How interrupted formal education impacts cognitive ?

• Interrupted education due to rural areas with no access to schools
• Worked to help family
• Difficult to get to school
• Interrupted school as a result of war


1. Signs of learning difficulties vs. second language acquisition process

*** Similarities between L2 acquisition and language deficits characteristics of students with disabilities***

• Stage of second language development
• History of L1 and L2 acquisition
• Learning History
• Background issues
i. Acculturation
ii. Medical
iii. Educational history