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Flashcards in 2nd half additional Deck (11):
1

Practices of working with interpreters
Systematic

Systemic
• Guidelines from professional organizations, national, and state policies
• Hiring and training of interpreters
• Training professionals working with interpreters
• Scope of use of interpreters (in house interpreters?)
• School districts, university programs working together to offer training

2

Practices of working with interpreters
Management Plan

Management Plan
• Roster of qualified interpreters
• Guidelines for interpreters’ roles
• Guidelines for selecting interpreters
• System for monitoring
• Plan for training
• Reward system
• Procedures to help interpreters improve their performance
• Plan for formative and summative evaluation
• Plan to employ bilingual personnel

3

Basic characteristics of interpreter

• High proficiency in L1 and L2
• Good communication skills
• Professional attitude
• Ability to work under pressure
• Sensitive to cultural differences
• Open to learning and training
• Ethical awareness and conduct
• Able to work well with others
• Knowledge of schools and of process (assessment)

4

Dynamics when working with interpreters

• Understanding roles/functions
• Understanding of the process
• Establishing “coworker alliance”-rapport and trust
• Establishing rapport with interpreter and clients
• Systemic challenges

5

Areas to train interpreters
Assessment:

• Overview of process
• Validity, reliability, standardization
• Roles of interpreter during assessment
• Access to tests and test items ahead of time

6

Process of working with interpreters: Briefing, during, debriefing (recommended practices during those stages)
Briefing

Briefing:
o Opportunity to establish rapport
o Provide overview of session for interpreter (meeting, assessment session)
o Provide information about the context
o Address confidentiality
o Decide on type of oral translation
o Establish sitting arrangements
o Provide opportunity to examine and translate written materials (testing materials, IEPs)
o Discuss technical terms
o Discuss cross-cultural differences
o Discuss translation process (everything is supposed to be translated, even side conversations)
o Agenda to follow during the session

7

Process of working with interpreters: Briefing, during, debriefing (recommended practices during those stages)
During

During:
o Welcome all participants
o Introductions
o Time to establish rapport
o Speak in short sentences
o Allow time for translations
o Avoid idioms, slangs, metaphors
o Take notes
o Check for understanding
o Interpreter to ask clarifying questions if needed

8

Process of working with interpreters: Briefing, during, debriefing (recommended practices during those stages)
Debriefing

Debriefing
o Discuss problems with translation (strengths and weaknesses)
o Discuss cross-cultural differences
o Review notes, questions

9

Bilingual education models
English as a Second Language (ESL) or ESOL (English to Speakers of Other Languages) Programs

• Standard academic curriculum
• Language arts from second language perspective
• Content reinforcement
• Pullout
• Sheltered or content instruction

10

Bilingual Education
Transition
Maintenance
Dual or bilingual

• Transitional or Early Exit (Transitional Bilingual Education)- taught in primary language for about 3 years
• Maintenance or Late Exit (developmental bilingual education programs)- language minority students to develop and maintain full proficiency in home language while simultaneously promoting proficiency in English
• Dual or Bilingual Immersion or Two-Way Bilingual- language minority and language majority (50/50) integrated language and academic with goals of high academic achievement in 1st and 2nd language

11

Strategies to increase language skills for ELLs
Language Development

Language Development
• Initially use simple vocabulary when teaching new or complex concepts
• Increase level of language gradually to expand on what has been learned
• Encourage use of vocabulary within sentences
• Encourage use of more complex sentences
• Modeling: expand language by using child’s language and then modeling more advanced skills
• Cues, visual materials
• Cooperative learning and peer tutoring
• Focus on language and content
• When questioning allocate time for responses
• Tie curriculum to students’ life experiences
• Literacy in L1; develop L1 at home
• Natural approach to language (make teaching opportunities out of occurrences in environment)
• Teach writing system
• Introduce reading and writing early