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Flashcards in Additional Review!! Deck (16):

What are the stressors associated with acculturation?

• Having to learn a new language
• Prejudice and discrimination
• Culture shock
• Socioeconomic factors/healthcare access
• Loss of social support networks/family stability
• Change in diet, sleep
• Social stressors (violence, drugs)
• Deviant behavior, feelings of marginality
• Immigrant and legal status


What are some of the factors that may influence the development of acculturation?

• Age of child
• Contact with other cultural groups
• Cognitive functioning
• Family experiences
• Peers
• Exposure to media
• Community make-up
• Societal attitudes
• School members’ attitudes


Stages of L2 Acquisition
Stage 1: Pre-Production

Stage 1: Pre-Production
• Minimal comprehension
• Verbal production/silent period
• Learner is focused on comprehension
• Learner attending to models and visual cues
• 500 words-receptive skills
• 0-6 months (duration)
• Students can >> listen, point, respond with action, draw, choose, act out
• Teachers should:
o Use visual aids + concrete materials + manipulatives
o Modify speech, simplify language
o Focus on key vocabulary
o Use physical response method
o Use gestures, Use repetition
o Modeling
o Group with more advanced ELL students
o Reading materials with simplified text


Stages of L2 Acquisition
Stage 2: Early Production

Stage 2: Early Production:
• Limited comprehension
• Production of isolated words
• Learner answering yes/no questions
• Producing one to two word sentences
• Vocabulary of 1000 receptive words; 100 expressive
• 6 months-1 year
• Students can>> name, label, group, answer yes/no, discriminate, list, categorize, count
• Teachers should:
o Use yes/no questions
o Ask for single word answers
o Use cloze exercises (assessment consisting of a portion of text with certain words removed (cloze text), where the participant is asked to replace the missing words.
o Expand on students answers
o Modeling
o Use simplified text ( ex: Shakespeare)
o Continue to use manipulative, concrete materials
o Predictable books with pictures
o Can copy off board


Stages of L2 Acquisition
Stage 3: Speech Emergence

Stage 3: Speech Emergence
• Good comprehension
• Limited vocabulary
• Use of short and simple sentences
• Ability to respond to literal questions that have been made comprehensible
• Errors in pronunciation and grammar
• Reading is limited to what can be comprehended orally
• Writing limited to brief responses
• Vocabulary : 7000 receptive and 700 expressive
• 1-3 years
• Students can>> retell, define, explain, compare, summarize, describe, role-play, restate, contrast
• Teachers should:
o Ask students to describe, contrast, restate, summarize
o Focus on key concepts
o Frequently check for comprehension
o Use expanded vocabulary
o Ask open ended questions: how, why
o Group discussion
o Context embedded materials
o Predictable books with more text, fewer pictures
o Expanded writing opportunities


Stages of L2 Acquisition
Intermediate Fluency

Stage 4: Intermediate Fluency
• Excellent comprehension
• Few grammatical errors orally, some in writing
• Learner involved in producing complex and longer sentences
• 3-5 years
• Students can>> analyze, create, defend, debate, predict, evaluate, justify, support, examine, hypothesize
• Teachers should:
o Frequently check for understanding since a lot more language is being used
o Help students develop deep understanding of concepts
o Use activities that require hypothesizing, justifying, and supporting
o Practice with making inferences
o Model appropriate language
o Expanded text with supporting materials


Stages of L2 Acquisition
Stage 5: Advanced fluency

Stage 5: Advanced Fluency
• Receptive and expressive skills are well developed
• 5-7 years
• Students can>> analyze, create, defend, debate, predict, evaluate, justify, support, examine, hypothesize
• Native live skills
• Teachers should:
o Can use more advanced vocabulary, always check for understanding and content
o Continue to build vocabulary
o Enriched writing activities
o Reading with supporting material when needed


Factor that influence L2 Acquisition

• student’s cognitive abilities and medical history
• motivation
• affective factors: anxiety
• practice opportunities (quality vs quantity)
• personality characteristics
• attitudes about adopted culture and second language
• length of residence in US
• home and community characteristics
o parental and community attitudes
o degree of parents’ bilingualism
o literacy in the home
o use of mixed languages


Students with Interrupted Formal Education (SIFE)

obviously if they don’t have a good foundation in formal education in their home country and language then it will be very difficult for the student to learn any academic material in L2- need to look at difficulties the student may be experiencing is due to problems with the quality of education in English both presently and in the past


Signs of learning difficulties vs second language acquisition process

• poor communicative proficiency in the home as compared to siblings and age peers in bilingual environments, especially when this lack is noticed by parents
• English language development that appears to be significantly different than that of peers who are also learning English as a second language
• Noted developmental delays or other at-risk conditions


Use of language proficiency to decide what language(s) to assess students

• Ochoa and Ortiz Multidimensional Assessment Model for Bilingual Individuals (MAMBI)
o Degree of language proficiency in English and native language
o Current and previous types of educational programs
o Current grade level


Typical Assessment profiles for ELL students

• Lower verbal scores
• Higher performance scores
• Performance scores that are verbally loaded
• Memory scores influence by proficiency and dominance
• Verbally loaded processing speed items also influenced by proficiency and dominance
• Cultural influence- how they approach the task, time factors, tasks familiar to student, social situations (comprehension)
• Previous education impacts performance on general knowledge items


Focus on assessment

• language samples
• rating scales
• home language usage form
• estimation of language usage form
• observations
• Formal tools: Woodcock Language Proficiency, Bilingual Verbal Ability Test



a translator converts written material in the same manner.
• Interpreting can occur in a variety of settings, such as conferences, meetings and over the telephone, and can take the form of either simultaneous (performed as the speaker delivers a speech act with the help of interpreting equipment) or consecutive (the interpreter listens to portions of a speech at a time, then interprets the segments as the original speaker is silent).


Problems inherent within the translation process

• Idioms, jokes, puns, colloquialisms and metaphors are difficult to translate
• Regional differences= dialectical differences
• Equivalent words may not exist
• There may be multiple equivalent words
• Developmental level of words may vary
• There isn’t a direct correlation between the information that is trying to be gathered and what the interpreter says


Challenges when working with interpreters

• Difference between school psychologist, interpreter, and clients (cultural, SES, regions, countries, religion, gender)
• Understanding of roles/functions
• Understanding of the process (who should be speaking, when)
• Establishing “coworker alliance”- rapport and trust
• Establishing rapport with interpreter and clients (client may feel more comfortable with the interpreter or there is greater pressure on them to voice opinion/concerns)
• Systemic challenges (interpreters hired by agency)