2: Antiparasitics - Not Malaria Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 2: Antiparasitics - Not Malaria Deck (56)
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1

definitive host of toxoplasma gondii

cat

2

transmission of toxoplasma gondii

eating raw meat or cat feces

3

what is the 3rd most common food-borne illness?

toxoplasma gondii

4

describe the life cycle of T. gondii?

-sexual development only in cat!
-cysts develop in other mammals

5

who does toxoplasmosis usually effect?

-NOT people with functioning immune systems
-severe toxoplasmosis seen in : HIV, organ transplants, chemotherapy

6

how do babies get congenital toxoplasmosis?

fetus becomes infected via placenta in women who are infected for the first time

7

what is first line treatment for toxoplasmosis? alternate?

primethamine + sulfadiazine

alternate: atavaquone or pentamidine

8

what parasitic infections are associated with HIV in the US?

-pneumocystis jirovecii (pneumonia)
-toxoplasma gondii (encephalitis)
-cryptosporidium (cryptosporidiosis)

9

what parasitic infections are associated with HIV globally?

-malaria
-leishmania
-trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas disease)

10

structure of pentamidine

aromatic diamidine

11

administration of pentamidine and mechanism

-parenteral
-mechanism unknown, but preferentially accumulates in parasites

12

how toxic is pentamidine?

very - 50% of patients show side effects
-can cause hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia

13

what is pentamidine first line use for? what is an alternate treatment for?

first line: West African trypanosomiasis
alternate: visceral leishmania and pneumocystosis

14

what are 3 anaerobic protozoa that cause disease?

-entamoeba histolytica (amebiasis)
-giardia lamblia (giardiasis)
-trichomonas vaginalis

15

what is one of the most common water-borne diseases in the US?

giardia lamblia

16

describe entamoeba histolytica infection process

ingest cysts -> forms trophozoites in ileum -> penetrates intestinal wall -> multiplication of trophozoites w/i colon wall -> systemic invasion

some cysts (infective) and trophozoites (non-infective) pass with feces

17

what does entamoeba histolytica infection cause?

diarrhea + ulcers on the intestinal lining

18

how can one kill entamoeba cysts?

boiling, but NOT chlorination

19

what promotes the spread of amebiasis?

poor sanitation and fecal contamination of food and water

20

where is amebiasis more common?

Latin America, Africa, and Indian subcontinent

21

where does amebiasis initially infect?

intestine - sometimes reaches other organs, such as liver

22

symptoms of amebiasis

most asymptomatic, but if present:
-diarrhea
-increased flatulence
-abdominal cramps
-sometimes liver abscesses

23

symptoms of giardiasis

range from asymptomatic to severe diarrhea and malabsorption

24

treatments of choice for giardiasis

-metronidazole
-nitazoxanide

25

what is the most frequent cause of recreational water-related disease outbreaks?

cryptosporidium

26

what is the most common symptom of cryptosporidium? what are other symptoms?

watery diarrhea***
-stomach cramps/pain
-dehydration
-nausea/vomit
-fever
-weight loss
-more serious illness in immunocompromised people

27

drug of choice for cryptosporidium

nitazoxanide

28

where does trichomonas reside in males and females?

males: urethra and prostate
females: lower genital tract

29

how does trichomonas present in both genders?

males: often asymptomatic

females:
-vaginitis + purulent discharge
-vulvar and cervical lesions
-abdominal pain
-dysuria
-dyspareunia

30

what is metronidazole the drug of choice for? what does it kill?

-extraintestinal Entamoeba histolytica
-giardiasis
-trichomoniasis

kills trophozoites but not cysts