Flashcards in 2: Antiparasitics - Not Malaria Deck (56)
definitive host of toxoplasma gondii
transmission of toxoplasma gondii
eating raw meat or cat feces
what is the 3rd most common food-borne illness?
describe the life cycle of T. gondii?
-sexual development only in cat!
-cysts develop in other mammals
who does toxoplasmosis usually effect?
-NOT people with functioning immune systems
-severe toxoplasmosis seen in : HIV, organ transplants, chemotherapy
how do babies get congenital toxoplasmosis?
fetus becomes infected via placenta in women who are infected for the first time
what is first line treatment for toxoplasmosis? alternate?
primethamine + sulfadiazine
alternate: atavaquone or pentamidine
what parasitic infections are associated with HIV in the US?
-pneumocystis jirovecii (pneumonia)
-toxoplasma gondii (encephalitis)
what parasitic infections are associated with HIV globally?
-trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas disease)
structure of pentamidine
administration of pentamidine and mechanism
-mechanism unknown, but preferentially accumulates in parasites
how toxic is pentamidine?
very - 50% of patients show side effects
-can cause hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia
what is pentamidine first line use for? what is an alternate treatment for?
first line: West African trypanosomiasis
alternate: visceral leishmania and pneumocystosis
what are 3 anaerobic protozoa that cause disease?
-entamoeba histolytica (amebiasis)
-giardia lamblia (giardiasis)
what is one of the most common water-borne diseases in the US?
describe entamoeba histolytica infection process
ingest cysts -> forms trophozoites in ileum -> penetrates intestinal wall -> multiplication of trophozoites w/i colon wall -> systemic invasion
some cysts (infective) and trophozoites (non-infective) pass with feces
what does entamoeba histolytica infection cause?
diarrhea + ulcers on the intestinal lining
how can one kill entamoeba cysts?
boiling, but NOT chlorination
what promotes the spread of amebiasis?
poor sanitation and fecal contamination of food and water
where is amebiasis more common?
Latin America, Africa, and Indian subcontinent
where does amebiasis initially infect?
intestine - sometimes reaches other organs, such as liver
symptoms of amebiasis
most asymptomatic, but if present:
-sometimes liver abscesses
symptoms of giardiasis
range from asymptomatic to severe diarrhea and malabsorption
treatments of choice for giardiasis
what is the most frequent cause of recreational water-related disease outbreaks?
what is the most common symptom of cryptosporidium? what are other symptoms?
-more serious illness in immunocompromised people
drug of choice for cryptosporidium
where does trichomonas reside in males and females?
males: urethra and prostate
females: lower genital tract
how does trichomonas present in both genders?
males: often asymptomatic
-vaginitis + purulent discharge
-vulvar and cervical lesions