Flashcards in 2: Immunostimulants Deck (15):
describe the activity of most immunostimulants
nonspecific activity towards the immune system********
name some natural adjuvants
detoxified Freund's adjuvant
what does echinacea do?
prevent/treat common cold, flu, infections
-stimulates IFN and TNF production
best known and one of most studied stimulants
where does acemannan come from?
gel of the aloe plant
what does acemannan do?
immunostimulant and antiviral properties
-strongly induces macrophages and production of IL-1
-may also be bone marrow stimulatory
where does B-1,3-glucan come from?
highly purified form of a food product from yeast extract
toxicity of B-1,3-glucan
no toxicity or SE so far
MOA of B-1,3-glucan
binds specific receptor on macrophages - activation - leads to nonspecific phagocytosis of pathogens
also induces release of cytokines (IL-1, IL-2) initiating an immune cascade and triggering other cell lines, such as T cells
stimulates bone marrow production
what is B-1,3-glucan supposed to help with?
ongoing chemo and radiotherapy
what was QS21 tested for and what is its future looking like right now?
tested as a vaccine adjuvant to increase vaccine-specific Ab response and T cell response in presence of very low dose Ag- amplifies both T and B cell responses
not looking great - frequent vaccination site pain, post-vaccination myalgias + not all studies verify its efficacy
what is detoxified freund's adjuvant?
aka DETOX - monophosphoryl lipid A and mycobacterial cell wall skeleton in an oil-in-water emulsion
MOA of DETOx
-induces Th cells to secrete IFN-g
-immunostimulant for humoral and cell immunity
what is DETOX being tested for?
tested in vaccine therapy of human cancers (melanoma)
toxicity of immune globulin admin
transmission of blood borne disease