2: Immunostimulants Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 2: Immunostimulants Deck (15):
1

describe the activity of most immunostimulants

nonspecific activity towards the immune system********

2

name some natural adjuvants

echinacea
acemannan
B-1,3-glucan
QS-21
detoxified Freund's adjuvant

3

what does echinacea do?

prevent/treat common cold, flu, infections
-stimulates phagocytosis
-stimulates IFN and TNF production

best known and one of most studied stimulants

4

where does acemannan come from?

gel of the aloe plant

5

what does acemannan do?

immunostimulant and antiviral properties
-strongly induces macrophages and production of IL-1
-may also be bone marrow stimulatory

6

where does B-1,3-glucan come from?

highly purified form of a food product from yeast extract

7

toxicity of B-1,3-glucan

no toxicity or SE so far

8

MOA of B-1,3-glucan

binds specific receptor on macrophages - activation - leads to nonspecific phagocytosis of pathogens

also induces release of cytokines (IL-1, IL-2) initiating an immune cascade and triggering other cell lines, such as T cells

stimulates bone marrow production

9

what is B-1,3-glucan supposed to help with?

retroviral infections
tumors
ongoing chemo and radiotherapy

10

what was QS21 tested for and what is its future looking like right now?

tested as a vaccine adjuvant to increase vaccine-specific Ab response and T cell response in presence of very low dose Ag- amplifies both T and B cell responses

not looking great - frequent vaccination site pain, post-vaccination myalgias + not all studies verify its efficacy

11

what is detoxified freund's adjuvant?

aka DETOX - monophosphoryl lipid A and mycobacterial cell wall skeleton in an oil-in-water emulsion

12

MOA of DETOx

-induces Th cells to secrete IFN-g
-immunostimulant for humoral and cell immunity

13

what is DETOX being tested for?

tested in vaccine therapy of human cancers (melanoma)

14

toxicity of immune globulin admin

allergic reaction
transmission of blood borne disease

15

what are immune globulins used for?

Hep A
parvovirus
enterovirus (neonates)