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What is animism

Part of human curiosity ancient way to explain how a rock moves, because animating spirits want to reunite it with the earth


Mind body connection and its two theories

Dualism. Body is physical matter, mind is seperate,
Da Vinci, sanctity, dissections! Location of brain, census communus, common sense! Link brain to psychological processes. Know controls behaviour not enough need to know how!

Starts with Descartes.
Organic machine, governed by reflex: Head toe, flow up nerve brain, reflected back, cause retraction. "How energy was reflected to point"
Statues, goddess Diana, machinist, first time technology was used to explain brain mechanism.
Descartes first to make connection between mind and brain. A connection wherein the mind controls beavhiour of the body,, an the body provides external info to the mind,

Sense organs supply info about enviro, cause reaction.

First one to talk about pineal body, release (joystick) fluid, from brain (ventricles) to nerves. Ideas of flowing ness, movement, mechanisms of hydraulic statues connection. Could be tested experimentally.

Had idea animals do not have minds, not useful for studying mind.
Q: asked time and time again, present day we rely on it very much.

Darwin and materialism.
Wallace, also had this theory.
Natural selection. And evolution.
Similarity in limbs and structure, suggests animals have general common ancestor. But different functional characteristics.
Ex. Anterior limb, motion, flying, swimming etc.
FUNCTIONALISM: Limbs perform functions. Must understand what behaviours accomplish.

Monism. Mind is part of body and controls physical matter. Matter and energy are the two components that explain all, and are what science is based on,

Owl butterfly, eyes like owl, adaptive characteristic, Darwyn theory of natural selection. Offspring inherent favorable characteristics.

Mutants are accidental changes in genes, unfavorable and disadvantageous,

All a q of how we see ourselves,s acknowledge our existence and promote the idea of a part of us being an intangible entity.

Physical brain rela, to non physical world.


Proof of consciousness. 3 ex, that unconscious perceptual mechanisms and sense of ownership are constructed by the brain. Communication in all senses is paramount.

Split brain: cut corpus callosum vert.
Note interesting fact that smell is lateral (right nostril, right brain) unlike other senses.

Blindsight; concept of primitive brain having "sight" that orients our head and hands, and sees things, even if.
The MAMALIAN brain is damaged, this is the brain that lets us perceive and experience visual things,

Unilateral neglect, right parietal cortex damaged.
Leads to left side neglect.

Self ownership, rubber hand experiement.
Show that parietal area takes things in and the promoter cortex is activitated, making rubber hand seem part of self. Also if needle use, anterior cingulate cortex for pain, and supplementary motor area for moving away from pain are activated.


What is this course really about

Physiological paychology
The primary function of the brain : behaviour (subsidiary is emotion, perception and memory)
Hence we study physiology and Behaviour to Generalize or reduce (this, given...) ideas to manageable concepts.


What is man, Hippocrates and Oedipus

The brain vs the heart.


Brain vs heart

Remodeles, Aristotle,

Galileo, nerves to brain heart.

Heart is frequently as word for emotion!
No heart, heart broken, kind hearted etc. the hypothesis has therefore left its mark.


Scientific writing portrayed brain as gift of God.
Note Sistine chapel like

Brain. Mechanistic ideas growing in this time.


Human evolution is a

Adaptability to survive, passing of genes.
Evolution of primates,

Advantages in homosapians,
Color vision, opposing fingers, language! Standing for larger field of view.


Humans largest brain?

Most intelligent, maybe, but Dolphins, whales and elephants have larger! In terms of size.

Size of brain not proportional body size. Body seize brain ration, intelligence not good indicator. Différence in proportion to body size Thoune is intéressons,

Size does not matter.
Elephant brain .2% of body Wright.

Brain of shroom (3.3%)


Human similarity to animals means can perform tests.
Human advantage

Language, report indivuals things. Feelings, have human brain,

Underlying mechanisms easier to study in non human subjects. They have basic building block, easier to rest. Reduced!

Evolutionary continuity:
Difference between h and an brain is quantitavtive.
Understand place in nature, enabling om paradise approach.

We are naturally curious.

Understand brains of animals lets us understand humans.

Provide expirimental control, specificity.


Video, shows monkey, Tamarac. To

Understand behaviour.
Reciprocal altruism.

But can asses this in different species.


Experimental approaches.
Having non invasive approaches.

See ch.


What was mullers most important contribution to physiology

Is doctrine of specific nerve energies: different sensations arise from the same basic message, electrical impulse. All through channels.


Who performed many procedures called expirimental ablations on animals?

Pierre Florenece,
It involves taking out part of rat brains an seeing how they fare.


Electricity was used experimental by Galvani (with frogs) an others to show

That different parts of the brain had different functions.
Also Broca's region inthe left hemisphere top area of cerebral cortex was used in speech as later scientists like fritsch and Hitzig,also discovered stimulated the primary motor cortex.


What significance did helmholtz have in neural conduction

That is is not a simple electrical impulse, and is in fact much slower at about 90 feet per second, meaning other things must also be happening.


Darwin complimented past research and promoted:

Functionalism: where characteristics of a species have specific functions (not purpose like machines) they play an evolutionary (selective) advantage. Also related to mutations in chromosome/genes .
Natural selection: means that these Functionalist charZcteristics allow for more reproduction and become part of the organism heritage Nd stay with it. Whereas other things die off.


What is a cynodont?

A therapid: Ancestor of mammals, one that survived the Big Bang.
All happened around Siberia, where amphibian led to reptiles who separated into three groups. Anapsids, diapsids and synapsids.



Where in humans the brain stops developing only after many years,
We start with small brains and let them grow.