Flashcards in Week 11 Communication Deck (23):
Humans use verbal communication, but not other animals like chimps..?
Animals communciTe too.
Training chimps to speak. Though,
Could get to do sign language.
But no spontaneity in sign language or use of gg rammer
Key passing also worked, but is this language?
Note LACK OF SPONTANEITY IN ALL OF THESE.
Matata, bonobo monkey. Kanzi. Lexigrams learned.
Show some evidence that they kno what symbols mean.
Respond to verbal request. Looks like but need innovation evidence. Has even made requests (to see bubbles)
Must start young, and behaviourally reinforced.
Language not just about brain size and intelligence,
Involves more than just
Language is a Lateralised Function
▪ Although the left and right hemispheres look the same in appearance, they differ in some major functions. This is referred to as lateralisation of function.
▪ Language disturbance occurs after damage to the left side of the brain, irrespective of handedness.
▪ Left hemisphere is more specialised for speech production and speech comprehension, and the analysis of sequences of stimuli.
▪ Right hemisphere is more specialised for perceiving emotions, gestures, tone of voice. Damage means hard to read maps. Organize narrative/prosody intonation, emotion.
▪ Both brain hemispheres therefore make a contribution to our language abilities though.
Language dominance can be taken over somewhat by right dude to damage?
Know right hemisphere pec R's from text ambi, left, like 15% and 27?
Speaking and hearing is more than just
Sounds, or words, we must attach ING to them
Primary Speech Areas of the Brain
▪ Broca’s area is located in the left inferior frontal gyrus. It was first described in 1861 by the French surgeon, Pierre-Paul Broca
▪ Broca’s area is primarily involved in meaningful speech production.
▪ Damage to Broca’s area causes Broca’s aphasia which is characterised by slow, laboured, disjointed and poorly articulated speech.
▪ Wernicke’s area is located in the left superior temporal gyrus. It was first described in 1874 by Carl Wernicke
▪ Wernicke’s area is involved in speech comprehension.
▪ Damage to Wernicke’s area causes Wernicke’s aphasia which is characterised by normal sounding but nonsensical speech.
Aphasia bro t know?
▪ Brain damage that causes aphasia causes a disturbance in the comprehension or production of speech.
▪ Not all speech disorders are aphasias; a patient with aphasia must have difficulty in comprehending, repeating or producing meaningful speech.
▪ The aphasic difficulty must not be caused by simple sensory or motor deficits or by lack of motivation (e.g. inability to speak caused by deafness).
▪ The aphasic deficit must be relatively isolated; the patient must be aware of what is happening in the environment and comprehend that others are trying to communicate.
Agrammatism refers to?
the patients difficulty in using grammatical constructions.
Broca aphasia is a Disorder of Speech Production
Heard ex. With aggrammatism, difficulty articulating
Broca aphasics have difficulty in producing grammatical function words (e.g. a, the, in, about) and rarely use grammatical markers or (e.g. -ed) or auxiliaries (e.g have)
▪ However, they are capable of producing content words that convey meaning (e.g. apple, house, heavy).
Broca aphasics misunderstand sentences with complex grammar
Therefore comprehension is se too not just production. Parallel in comprehension, rely n inference, take away en or ing. Forget what to whom.
Broca Aphasics are Anomic, meaning?
Anomia is a word-finding difficulty; all aphasics omit words or use inappropriate ones. Can be aware. Dyslexic like word scrambling it seems to me sometimes.
They constantly make facial expressions and use sounds like “uh” because they’re struggling to find the right word.
Anomia is a primary symptom of all forms of aphasia.
primary symptom of all forms of aphasia?
Broca Aphasics have difficulty with articulation
Patients mispronounce words and alter the sequence of sounds (e.g. “lipstick” > “likstip”).
The patients recognise that their pronounciation is erroneous, and they usually try to correct it.
Summary of what Broca Aphasics have difficulty witha
Broca’s symptoms involve different brain regions
▪ TMS stimulation of Broca’s area makes subjects feel that they ‘can’t get the word out.’
▪ TMS stimulation of the primary motor cortex makes subjects feel that they had lost control of their facial muscles.
▪ Only voiced speech activates the periaqueductal gray matter (PAG). It also activates the auditory cortex.
- presumably, auditory feedback from our own voices helps regulate our own speech (Schulz et al., 2005).
▪ Broca’s area is activated when judging the plausibility of sentences that require comprehension of grammar.nsemantic plausibility.
- “The dog that the cat scratched chased the mouse” makes sense, but “The mouse that the cat scratched chased the dog” does not make sense.
The insular cortex is involved in speech articulation
Patients with speech apraxia
Patients without speech apraxia (see Image)
Damage to the precentral gyrus of the insular cortex causes speech apraxia (the inability to program movements of the lips, tongue and throat) which causes the difficulty with articulation in Broca’s aphasia (Dronkers et al., 1996).
So regions outside of Broca's are associated with Broca's aphasia. Insula Just one.
Wernicke’s aphasia is a disorder of speech comprehension
▪ Patients with Wernicke’s aphasia use few content words.
▪ They are very fluent in their use of words but their speech is
nonsensical. Have voice into atoms.
▪ They still follow normal social conventions, taking turns in conversation.
▪ They show poor speech comprehension.
▪ They are unaware of their speech deficit.
Poor comprehension point to pen with ink stim.
Wernicke’s aphasia: analysis
▪ Why would damage to an area responsible for the ability to recognise spoken words disrupt people’s ability to speak?
Wernicke’s aphasia consists of several deficits:
- Failure to recognise spoken words.
- Failure to comprehend the meaning of words.
- Inability to convert thoughts into words.
Recognition (not same as comprehension): Pure Word Deafness
Damage to the left temporal lobe produces a disorder of auditory word recognition: pure word deafness.
▪ Patients with pure word deafness
▪ cannot understand speech, but they are NOT deaf.
▪ They can recognise nonspeech sounds (e.g. barking of a dog).
▪ They can recognise the emotion expressed by intonation of speech even though they cannot understand what is being said.
▪ Their own speech is excellent.
▪ They can understand people by reading lips, they can read and write, they can communicate by writing.
▪ Evidently, people with pure word deafness can comprehend the meaning of words otherwise they would not be able to read lips and understand written words when reading.
Seems to choose not to use textbook wording of gray area
Phonetic information activates
different areas of the auditory
association cortex in the
superior temporal lobe (Scott et al., 2000)
Pure word deafness can be caused by damage to Wernicke’s area itself, or disruption of the auditory input to Wernicke’s area.
Primary auditory cortex damage, means recognize issue. No lead to w area.
Aphasics W have this and another issue. Posterial parietal tempo area.
Comprehension: Transcortical Sensory Aphasia
▪ Damage to the area posterior to Wernicke’s area (temporal - occipital-parietal area) produces a disorder called transcortical sensory aphasia.
▪ People with transcortical sensory aphasia:
- can recognise speech (they can repeat what other
people say to them).
- cannot comprehend what they hear or repeat.
- cannot produce their own meaningful speech.
▪ The ability to repeat what they hear must be due to a direct connection between Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas.
Arcuate facciculus connection
Of Broca's and wernicke's
How do we convert our thoughts (or perceptions) into words?
▪ The meanings of words are our memories of objects, actions and concepts associated with them.
▪ Memories of words are stored in different regions of the association cortex, not the speech areas.
▪ First we must recognise the sequence of sounds (the auditory association cortex is activated). Next, we activate the memory that constitutes the meaning of the word.
▪ Damage to the left auditory association cortex causes autotopagnosia, the specific inability to name body parts but no impairment in understanding the meaning of other words.
The arcuate fasciculus conveys information about sounds of words but not