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When was the terror..



Causes of the terror..

Congress of victors
Kirovs murder


Causes of the terror..
- Lenin's paranoia

Feared opposition from those loyal to his former rivals
- Red army loyal to Trotsky
- Moscow and Leningrad former power bases of Zinoviev and kamenev
- Yagoda, head of NKVD, sided with Bukharin in 1928


Causes of the terror..
- Economy

Blamed 'wreckers' for failure of the NEP who were published tried and published
Needed large labour force for projects eg. Magnitogorsk
- those arrested sent to gulags and worked as slaves


Causes of the terror..
- Congress of Victors

1934 - 17th party congress
Vote to elect new central committee.
Kirov=1225 votes , Stalin=927 votes
Already concernedd about Kirov after influence on 2nd 5yr plan
Bolsheviks told him to run against Stalin as general secretary - refused
Showed that many in party wanted new leader


Causes of the terror..
- Kirov's murder

1934. Leningrad

Stalin had Zinoviev and kamenev arrested
Argued that is was evidence of widespread conspiracy in the party to restore Capitalism



Moscow show trials

Trial of the 16 - 1936
Trial of the 17 - 1937
Trial of the 21 - 1938

Secret trial - 1937


Trial of the 16

Zinoviev and Kamenev

Charged for murder of Kirov, plotting to disrupt economy, working with foreign powers and plotting to murder Stalin

Confessed and executed


Trial of the 17


Trotsky and supporters
Charged with murder of Kirov, plotting to disrupt economy and plotting to murder Stalin

Most executed, 4 to gulags

Trotsky sentenced to Death but in exile


Trial of the 21


Bukharin and Yagoda

Bukharin also charged with plotting to murder Lenin

Bukharin confessed to 'political responsibility' after Stalin threatene dot kill wife and child. Never confessed to Lenin charge

All execute


Secret trial


8 army generals

Stalin didn't want to alarm public so close to war - didn't trust red army

Accused of plotting against Stalin - brutal torture by NKVD, confessed

Next 18 months, 340,000 soldiers purged from army


Significance of Moscow show trials

Removed rivals from 1920's
Silenced those who knew about Lenin's testament
Propaganda showed hem as 'proving' Stalin alone could be trusted with Russia's future


The great terror Under Yehov

The doctrine of sharpening class struggle 1937
Conveyor belt system
Wider terror


The doctrine of sharpening class struggle

Stalin Rgued the closer the got to commusism, more capitalists would fight - justified increased repression
Became official communist party policy at central committee meeting nov. 1937
Within 3months 70% of those present victim of the terror they voted to extend


Conveyor belt system

yezhov reformed NKVD to make more efficient
Purged NKVD replacing those opposed to the terror with those prepared to torture party members. 23000 NKVD executed
Worked inch teams to torture 24/7 until confession got
With Stalin, Yezhov set targets for number of arrests and executions


Wider Terror under Yehzov

- Workers inspired by show trials imprisoned managers and trialed in front of factory workforce. Eg. In Yaroslavl, managers of rubber factory tried, found guilty to handed over to NKVD
- NKVD targeted industrial managers and gov. administrators
- People put communist officials on trial for living luxurious lifestyles on public money
91924-38, 330,000 party members arrested and convicted


Final victims of the Terror

Ended 1938
YEZHOV: arrested end of 1938, ,1940 executed for terrorism and collaborating with other countries
Beria replaced Yezhov - 1940, masterminded execution of Trotsky


Economic impacts of the Terror

- Kirov supporters removed from Politburo - able to change direction of 2nd 5 yr plan in 1936
- Industrial managers lied about production to avoid NKVD
Purges of Gosplan = 3rd yr plan never published = confusion in industry
-Removal of local managers reduced efficiency of industry
- Donbas, coal production trebled 1928-36, stagnated during terror


Political impacts of the Terror

- Show trials removed 1920's rivals
- Removal of Kirovs supporters - removed those who wanted to moderate some of Stalins policies
- Able to deflect economic criticism - accused others of sabotaging 5 yr plans

- administration ground to halt as officials scared to make decisions (Purges!)
- Jr members promoted as bases purged


Social consequences of the Terror

- 10% of adult males victim to terror
- Majority of men arrested aged 30-45
-Children of those arrested humiliated at school/Komsomol
- Move to new cities with new identities
- Daughters of victims tried to marry into working class
- Local officials bribed for new working class identities
- Stakhanovites used terror as opportunity to remove managers and gain promotion
- Workers informed on neighbours to get vacated properties

YAGODA CONVICTED 0.5m 1935/5 - 2300 short


What was socialist realism

artistic form favoured by Stalin
- Focused on activities of workers and peasants to build socialism on collective farms and in industry
- Paintings and sculptures 'realistic'


Impact of Socialist Realism

Designed to show achievements of Stalins Russia and inspire
Social control - Totalitarian regime
Used to maintain popularity of regime and consolidate Stalin's position


Examples of Socialist Realism

Forward, oh time - 1934 - Literature - excitement of working in steel factory during 2nd 5 yr plan
Leader, Teacher, Friend - Painting - 1935 - Shows Stalin speaking to peasants at 2nd congress of collective farm workers


Why was Cult of Personality important in totalitarian regime

celebrated Stalins genius and goodness, people loyal and grateful to Stalin


Cult of Personality

HISTORY - changed to exaggerate role in Oct Rev. and his closeness to Lenin - Eg. Joseph Stalin: A short biography (1947)
Photos doctored to remove Trotsky

- Lenins Pupil - presents Stalin as Lenin's pupil
- ' Long live the stalinist order of heroes' - showed stalin in front of statue of Lenin - 'Lenin of today'

- focus of enthusiasm for communism
- Stalin's Birthday = national holiday
- Cult of Lenin replaced christian symbolism with communist symbols
- All citizens to participate in cult by buying paintings/sculptures of Lenin and Stalin