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Before the War (WWII)...

Nazi Soviet Pact - 1939 - Non-aggression deal

Red Army - purges 1936 removed most officers - WEAK
Economy - Chaos of 3rd year plan made prep. difficult - 1938-41 spending on rearmament 27.5bn - 70.9bn
Spying - best spy network in the world but Stalin didn't trust them - valuable information ignored


Key Events of WWII

June 1941 - Operation Barbarossa

Sep 1941 - Operation Typhoon
- German troops reached Moscow and Leningrad - attempts to take repelled by Red Army - laid siege to cities

Aug 42-Feb 43 - Battle of Stalingrad
- Battle for Leningrad - 0ver 1.9m killed, successfully repelled German attack

Sep 1942 - Operation Uranus
- Russian counterattack, end of '43, Russians forced German out of territory

Jan 1944 - Ten Great Victories
- Russia captured significant territory in Eastern Europe

Apr 1945 - Battle of Berlin
- Russian troops reached Berlin
- Russia conquered Berlin in May


Human cost of the WWII

30m died overall, over 10% of population


Economic Cost of WWII

- Gosplan estimated destruction rid all of progress of 1st/2nd plans
- Scorched Earth Policy adopted by Germans at end of war - destruction of factories
- 32,000 factories and 65,000km of railways destroyed during war
Conscription = loss of experienced workers
- Decline on production
- Output of 1942 59% of that of 1940
- Rationing and gov. requisitioned 90% of grain to feed red army


Reasons for Victory

War Economy
Home Front
Enemy within
Military Campaigns
allied support


Reasons for Victory
- War Economy

Used to planning
Gosplan - organised relocation of 1523 factories in first month
By 1942 - 56% of national income on war
Armament production doubled 1941-44


Reasons for Victory
- Home Front

Propaganda stressed importance of patriotism
PATRIOTISM - provided reason to fight
CHURCH - war forced Stalin to make alliance
Sergei, leader of Russian Orthodox Church = Stalin was 'God's chosen leader' and war was a 'holy war'
Stalin closed 'The Godless' in 1941 - 1945 414 churches reopened
Promise of heaven = comfort to soldiers


Reasons for Victory
- Enemy Within

NKVD made list of non-Russians in Russia and relocated or murdered

eg. Kalmyks, ethnic minority 130,000 people, deported to Siberia
by 1953; 60% of those deported died


Reasons for Victory
- Military Campaigns

Hitler launcehd war against Russia hwilst still fighting on western front; DIVIDED!
Chose to lay seige to moscow = not take by force. Gave R. Army time to regroup and fight back
June '42 - Hislter sent more troops to Russia; instead of capturing Moscow and knowing Russia out of the war, he sent to Stalingrad - Embroiled in Siege again


Reasons for Victory
- Allied Support

- 1942, Br/US launched operation torch - opening a front in north africa - dividing german forces
- 1944 - Br/US reopened western front, dormant since Dunkirk evacuation 1940

- Allies access to American war goods at small cost
- 12% of aeroplanes, 10% of tanks used by Russia
- 95% of trains, 66% of Jeeps used to cross Europe
-Food for red army - 17% of calorie intake

Gosplan estimated lend lease = 4% of goods used by Russian army

economy unable to produce food and soph. transport goods in large numbers
Compensated for deficiencies of Russian economy



Geographical Influence
Military Might


Superpower - Geographical Influence

By 1946, ained a sphere of influence in Eastern Europe, acted as buffer zone against Capitalist Enemies
Established communist regimes across Eastern Europe (Eg. East Germany, Poland etc.)
Satellite States not fully independant - controlled economy and foreign policy
Informal military alliance


Superpower - Economy

4th 5 year plan launched at the end of war
Russia fastest growing economy in the world
1952, industrial production twice that of 1940
Focus of 4th+5th plans was h. industry and rearmament - prepared for future war


Superpower - Military Might

1946 - 3m men - largest army in world
4th 5 yr plan - 7.4bn roubles to defence - 2bn more than spending during WWII
1949 - developed atomic bomb (catch up with US)
1953 - developed hydrogen bomb (US)
After war - developing rockets, missiles etc.


When did Stalin Die