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Flashcards in 2.4 Deck (15):
1

Before the War (WWII)...

Nazi Soviet Pact - 1939 - Non-aggression deal

Prepared?
Red Army - purges 1936 removed most officers - WEAK
Economy - Chaos of 3rd year plan made prep. difficult - 1938-41 spending on rearmament 27.5bn - 70.9bn
Spying - best spy network in the world but Stalin didn't trust them - valuable information ignored

2

Key Events of WWII

June 1941 - Operation Barbarossa

Sep 1941 - Operation Typhoon
- German troops reached Moscow and Leningrad - attempts to take repelled by Red Army - laid siege to cities

Aug 42-Feb 43 - Battle of Stalingrad
- Battle for Leningrad - 0ver 1.9m killed, successfully repelled German attack

Sep 1942 - Operation Uranus
- Russian counterattack, end of '43, Russians forced German out of territory

Jan 1944 - Ten Great Victories
- Russia captured significant territory in Eastern Europe

Apr 1945 - Battle of Berlin
- Russian troops reached Berlin
- Russia conquered Berlin in May

3

Human cost of the WWII

30m died overall, over 10% of population

4

Economic Cost of WWII

- Gosplan estimated destruction rid all of progress of 1st/2nd plans
- Scorched Earth Policy adopted by Germans at end of war - destruction of factories
- 32,000 factories and 65,000km of railways destroyed during war
Conscription = loss of experienced workers
- Decline on production
- Output of 1942 59% of that of 1940
- Rationing and gov. requisitioned 90% of grain to feed red army

5

Reasons for Victory

War Economy
Home Front
Enemy within
Military Campaigns
allied support

6

Reasons for Victory
- War Economy

Used to planning
Gosplan - organised relocation of 1523 factories in first month
By 1942 - 56% of national income on war
Armament production doubled 1941-44

7

Reasons for Victory
- Home Front

Propaganda stressed importance of patriotism
PATRIOTISM - provided reason to fight
CHURCH - war forced Stalin to make alliance
Sergei, leader of Russian Orthodox Church = Stalin was 'God's chosen leader' and war was a 'holy war'
Stalin closed 'The Godless' in 1941 - 1945 414 churches reopened
Promise of heaven = comfort to soldiers

8

Reasons for Victory
- Enemy Within

NKVD made list of non-Russians in Russia and relocated or murdered

eg. Kalmyks, ethnic minority 130,000 people, deported to Siberia
by 1953; 60% of those deported died

9

Reasons for Victory
- Military Campaigns

Hitler launcehd war against Russia hwilst still fighting on western front; DIVIDED!
Chose to lay seige to moscow = not take by force. Gave R. Army time to regroup and fight back
June '42 - Hislter sent more troops to Russia; instead of capturing Moscow and knowing Russia out of the war, he sent to Stalingrad - Embroiled in Siege again

10

Reasons for Victory
- Allied Support

GRAND ALLIANCE
- 1942, Br/US launched operation torch - opening a front in north africa - dividing german forces
- 1944 - Br/US reopened western front, dormant since Dunkirk evacuation 1940

LEND LEASE
- Allies access to American war goods at small cost
- 12% of aeroplanes, 10% of tanks used by Russia
- 95% of trains, 66% of Jeeps used to cross Europe
-Food for red army - 17% of calorie intake

Gosplan estimated lend lease = 4% of goods used by Russian army

BUT
economy unable to produce food and soph. transport goods in large numbers
Compensated for deficiencies of Russian economy

11

Superpower

Geographical Influence
Economy
Military Might

12

Superpower - Geographical Influence

By 1946, ained a sphere of influence in Eastern Europe, acted as buffer zone against Capitalist Enemies
Established communist regimes across Eastern Europe (Eg. East Germany, Poland etc.)
Satellite States not fully independant - controlled economy and foreign policy
Informal military alliance

13

Superpower - Economy

4th 5 year plan launched at the end of war
Russia fastest growing economy in the world
1952, industrial production twice that of 1940
Focus of 4th+5th plans was h. industry and rearmament - prepared for future war

14

Superpower - Military Might

1946 - 3m men - largest army in world
4th 5 yr plan - 7.4bn roubles to defence - 2bn more than spending during WWII
1949 - developed atomic bomb (catch up with US)
1953 - developed hydrogen bomb (US)
After war - developing rockets, missiles etc.

15

When did Stalin Die

1953