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Stalin: personality

Lenins testiment.

Loyal to Lenin until ill, then started to disobey orders

TESTIMENT: criticised for disobeying orders


Trotsky: personality

Lenins Testiment

Arrogant, viewed as too western by many party members
Not trusted by many as only joined party in 1917

Testament: 'the most outstanding member'


Bukharin: Personality


Leading advocate for the NEP
Viewed as too young and Too left wing to be head of party

Testament: his theories 'not fully Marxist'


Zinoviev and Kamenev

Others views on them

History of disloyalty, cowardice. Publicly criticesed lenins plans for 1917 rev. And avoided fighting civil war


Statins powerbase

General secretary

Controlled party promotions and discipline
Selected delegates for party congress
Influenced Politburo agenda


Trotskys power base

Head of Red Army

Seen as a threat, could use the army to take control
Gained loyalty of army
But most not member of party, so couldn't attend congress


Bukhorin power base

Editor of Pravda

Could publish own views and criticise others


Zinoviev power base

Head of Petrograd soviet, loyalty of large section of party


Kamenev power base

Head of Moscow party, loyalty of large section of party


Economic ideology

Left wing (Trotsky). High peasant taxes, rapid industrialisation, encourage collectivisation

Right wing (Bukharin, Stalin etc) low peasant taxes, gradual industrialisation , allow free market. NEP!


Foreign ideology

Left wing - Trotsky - no socialist society can exist on its own. Aggressive foreign policy, could lead to war
Right wing - socialism in 1 country. Appealed to Russian nationalism


Making and breaking alliances

Triumvirate - 1923-5. Zinoviev, kamenev, Stalin. prevent Trotsky seizing power
- 1924, 13th party congress, defended NEP against left wing alternative. Ended Trotskys leadership ambition

Duumvirate - Bukharin and Stalin vs. united opposition (Zinoviev, kamenev and Trotsky) 1925-28
Defended NEP and socialism in one country 15th party congress
Trotsky, Zinoviev and kamenev expelled from party

Vs. right opposition.
Abandoned NEP and adopted left wing economic Policies
Bukharin was committed to NEP and lost credibility