23 resveratrol Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 23 resveratrol Deck (17):
1

what is resveratrol

polyphenolic compound
- 3,5,4-trihydroxystilbene
- phytoalexin produced by plants due to stress
- plant antibiotic

2

stilbene compound

class of polyphenols
- fat soluble
- cis and trans forms
- aglycone or glycoside

3

resveratrol history

herbal product called Kojo Kon
- active ingredient - polygonum cuspidatum

used to treat wide range of afflictions
fungal diseases, skin inflammations, heart diseases, liver, blood vessels

4

resveratrol found in

only in the skin of grapes
- red wine
- highest in pinot noir
- fermentation intensifies content

5

bioavailabilty

high absorption 70%
low due to rapid metabolism
- unlikely that human tissues are exposed
- most likely resveratrol metabolites

6

resveratrol metabolites

resveratrol monosulphate
resveratrol monoglucuronide (2 isoforms)
dihydroresveratrol monosulphate
dihydroresveratrol monoglucuronide

7

research on health

cvd
cancer
longevity

8

french have high SFA, alcohol and smoking rates but low CVD

alcohol 20-30% reduction for no more than 2 drinks/day

9

How resveratrol may help CVD

1. promote VD and inhibit VC
- stimulate eNOS for nitric oxide production
- inhibit ET-1 gene secretion, mRNA levels and promotor acitivity
2. inhibit ROS
- direct antioxidant activity
- scavenges free radicals and inhibits LDL oxidation
3. anti-inflammatory activity
- inhibit enzymes
- cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase
4. inhibit platelet aggregation
5. inhibit myocardial infarction proliferation
-prevent athlerosclerosis

10

Important notes about CVD studies

demonstrated in cell culture
doses obtain through diet
with resveratrol not metabolites

11

How resveratrol may reduce cancer

1. estrogenic/antiestrogenic
- similar to synthetic E agonist DES
2. biotransformation enzymes
- phase I and II
3. Normal cell cycle regulation
-DNA repair
4. Inhibit proliferation - induce apoptosis
5. inhibition of tumour invasion
- matrix metalloproteinases, help cancer invade normal tissue
6. inhibit angiogenesis

12

important notes about resveratrol studies

cell culture
doses not achievable in diet
resveratrol not metabolites

13

resveratrol and longevity

ability to mimic caloric restriction
- reduce calories without malnutrition can extend life span in animals 30-70%
- dramatic reprogramming of cellular metabolism
- increase insulin sensitivity
- improve cardiovascular function
- reduce age related muscle wasting
- reduce age related disease

14

various categories of caloric restriction mimetics

glycolytic inhibitors
antioxidants
sirtuin regulators
lipid regulators
autophagic enhances
insulin sensitizers

15

resveratrol as a CR mimetic

1. sirtuin regulator
- increase SIRT1 enzyme
- NAD dependent enzyme
- deacetylases a variety of target molecules that help regulate fat metabolism, gluconeogenisis. glycolysis, vascular health and cell survival

2. induction of AMPK
- AMP protein kinase
-enhances fatty acid oxidation
-down regulates HMG-CoA reductase (cholesterol)

16

Hormesis

stimulatory at low doses and detrimental at high doses
- alcohol and resveratrol

17

Doses of resveratrol are considered?

pharmacological rather than dietary
- considered a drug vs a supplement