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Alex 3

Takes over due to Alex 2 assn 1881. stopped all reforms. Strict censorship imposed. Secret police used. Teachers report on students. Jew persecution. Pogroms

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Pogrom

Widespread violence and persecution of Jews, used in reign of Alex 3

2

Nick 2

1894, tried to modernize, # factories 2x 1867-900. Transiberian RR built. Helps Econ. Working conditions worse, rich / poor gap grows. Weakness shows in issues. 1915 moves to war front to rally troops. Steps down due to march revolution. He and family executed 1918

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Russo Japanese war

Major failure, Russia lost. Over Manchuria territory

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Bloody Sunday

1-22-05 200k workers + families march on tsar palace. Petition for better working conditions, + personal freedom, + elected nat'l legislation, Bloody Sunday when police fired and killed 500-1000 killed

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Duma

Russia first parliament, dissolved 10 months, other Dumas tried but didn't have power

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Czarina Alexandria

Took over gov responsibilities, fell under Rasputin influence.

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Rasputin

Self proclaimed healer w/ magical powers, Influenced Alexandria. Supposedly cured tsars son hemophilia, put friends into power, killed 1916 BC threat to power.

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March revolution

1917, Started by girl textile workers in Petrograd. Riots over shortages of bread and fuel. Nick 2 stepped down from power as result.

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Alex Karensky

Runner of temporary gov't est. by Duma rulers after Nick 2 step down from power, made fateful descision to stay in war.

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Soviets

Local counsel consisting of workers, peasants, soldiers began under Karensky. In most cities had more power than temp gov't.

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Lenin

Leader of Bolsheviks. Fleed to avoid arrest. Returned April 1917. Nov 1917, Bolsheviks attack winter palace, arrested temp govt officials, revo over in hours. Ordered farmland be distrib to peasants. Factory control to workers. Signed Brest-litovsk treaty, giving up territory gained in war and ending involvement in it- lead to civil war in Russia. 1924 communists made constitution, Lenin had all power tho. Died 1924 stroke. Stalin is successor.

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Trotsky

Leader of red Bolshevik army.

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Stalin

Man of steel. Steadily power climb 1922-27.1928 total control communist party. Focused on Russia development. Became totalitarian state. Implemented a command economy, started 5 year plan that set impossibly high quotas a