Flashcards in 298 Crusades Lecture 16 March 28 Deck (48):
William of Tyre, writing in early 1180s, described how the strategic balance in Near East had titled against the Franks
sinfulness of the contemporaries
loss of advantage that religious zeal had provided
unification of Syria and Egypt
Today we'll look at the second and third aspects in the wake of the second crusade and ultimately how this led to the calling of the third crusade
The failure at Damascus in 1148 did not immediately lead to unification of Syria.
Some in Damascus thought Nur al-Din a bigger threat than Jerusalem
Damascus provided troops for Nur al-Din (leading in 1149 to Prince Raymond of Antioch's defeat and death), they also agreed to a new truce with Jerusalem
Would last until 1154 when Nur al-Din annexed Damscus
Damascus thus constantly playing both sides.
Paying tribute to one, supplying troops to the other.
Nur al-Din not the psycho that Zengi was.
He also recognized at the time the usefulness of the rhetoric of jihad and consciously used it. Possible that he genuinely believed what he was saying when he advocated holy war.
Religious propagandists travelled in Nur's armies.
"Until you see Jesus fleeing from Jerusalem"
But for all the rhetoric, focus of Nur al-Din's campaigning was other Muslims.
Damascus in 1154
Egypt after 1163
Treaties with Byzantine emperor in 1159 and Jerusalem in 1161
Nur al-Din cultivated an image as a just judge, educated and orthodox (but not a fanatic in the words of one of his biographers)
Rebuilt walls of Medina
Built an elaborate minbar (pulpit) in Aleppo 1168-9. Proclaiming jihad credentials.
Wanted to relocate it to al-Aqsa mosque.
Saladin fulfills this wish 20 years later
To understand the rise of Saladin we need to look to Egypt
In wake of 2nd Crusade, in the 1160s, Frankish defense strategy reoriented toward Egypt
Damascus tended toward Jerusalem anyways
Antioch a touching issue due to Byzantium (Manuel had asserted personal lordship over the city in 1159, made stronger by capture of the Prince of Antioch, Reynald of Chatillon, in 1161 by Nur al-Din)
Egypt also tempting:
Fatamid's deteriorating politically
Nur al-Din also looking at it
Egyptian fleet had been wiped out earlier by the Venetians and had yet to recover
A lot of politicking going on.
Vizier Shawar had been deposed in 1163. Nur al-Din sends is general Asad al-Din Shirkuh to restore him.
Shawar, now restored, turns and asks Franks for aid
Shirkuh saw an Egyptian invasion as anopportunity to establish independent power of his own. Takes his nephew with him as second-in-command.
Yusuf Ibn Ayyub, Saladin
Shirkuh's invasion successful, but he lacked reinforcements as Nur al-Din busy attacking Antioch.
Franks also distracted by Antioch
Both parties leave Egypt in 1164
New invasion in 1166 by Shirkuh, this time supported by Nur and Caliph
Shawar anticipated it. Calls on Franks again.
Both armies arrive in January 1167
Ends in another stalemate
Both leave Egypt
Comes to a head in 1168-69
King of Jerusalem, Amalric, attacks in October.
Shawar asks Shirkuh for help
Shawar assassinated in January 1169
Now Shirkuh the vizier
Dies in March
Saladin replaces him
Saladin is the 5th vizier in 6 years
Within a year he had consolidated his power in Egypt
In Sept 1171, Fatamid Caliph died
Saladin had the name of the Sunni Abbasid caliph inserted into Friday prayers
after 202 years, Fatamid caliphate at an end
Nur al-Din getting nervous over this upstart
Starting to prepare against him
Suddenly dies of a heart attack in May 1174
Coincidentally, July 1174 Amalric died of a prolonged fever
Saladin takes Damscus by October
Saladin's image becomes completely reimagined in the wake of the Third Crusade
We will look at this aspect of things more next week
At the time, people scared shitless over him.
Saladin's first concern was securing Nur al-Din's inheritance, which he claimed as his own
Between 1174 and 1187, truces prevailed between Saladin and the crusader states
So why does he end up looking for a way to break those truces later?
2. Power through patronage
Believed time was right
God would grant success if society was purified (not unlike Bernard of Clairvaux)
New schools, hospices, removed illegal taxes
Tensions with Byz
Manuel had been planning to lead a major Byzantine crusade to establish himself as clear leader of Christendom. Major battle to finally push the Turks out of Asia Minor
Battle of Myriocephalum
Devastating loss for the Greeks
Turks take even more territory
Byz will play no further real role in Syria, Palestine, or Egypt
1180 Saladin allies with Turkish Sultan and the new Byz emperor in preparation to attack crusader states (emperor Andronikos)
West learns of this treaty. Betrayal
1182. Riots in Constantinople. Anti-Latin. Thousands massacred. Papal legate head chopped off, tied to dog's tail.
Back to Jihad and Saladin
Saladin a parvenue Kurd
Jihad a way of claiming authority and legitimacy
Show of public orthodoxy
Got formal recognition of his conquests from caliph in Baghdad, something Nur al-Din had done
Practically, his power depended on his ability to reward his followers and allies
Any slackening of this rich stream of patronage threatened his authority
Territorial expansion provided the object and the sustenance for Saladin's policies
Saladin had a highly developed sense of opportunism, which led to his many successes more than outright military brilliance
But his success was also due to the 2nd thing William of Tyre mentioned: the crumbling from within of the Franks
Succession of Jerusalem Kings didn't bode well
Baldwin III: civil war with mother and brother
Amalric: possible bigamist
Baldwin IV: leper
Baldwin V: child
Sybil and Guy: woman and unpopular arriviste husband
1174-1186 constant jockeying for control of the regency, of ill and infant kings, and of royal patronage.
Practical issues beyond the who is sitting on the throne
Across the kingdom, there was a move toward castles and fiefs within lordships being acquired by wealthy eccls corporations
EG Caesarea, by 1187: 55% of landed property in religious hands, mostly military orders
Secular lordships thus withering.
Lack of new land being acquired meant that what revenues crown did have could not keep up with expenditures
But more than money and the falliability of the monarchal system
Outremer lacked men.
When Saladin turned his attentions to Jerusalem, only 2 knights were there to defend it
Baldin IV. No heirs
Baldwin V. Child king (1185-86)
2 sisters of Baldwin IV. Jockeying for power.
Sybil and Guy crowned
Reynald of Chatillon declares he will have nothing to do with Guy
Declares his lands of Antioch to be fully autonomous
Starts attacking Muslim caravans
This gives Saladin the excuse he needed to break the truce with the kingdom of Jerusalem
Saladin raised a huge army
July 1187 Battle of Hattin
Christians outwitted. Total defeat.
Nearly the full fighting strength of kingdom of Jerusalem killed or captured.
King Guy and barons captured
Thousands of Knights Templar and Hospitaller executed
Relic of True Cross captured and paraded upside down through streets of Damascus