298 Crusades Lecture 16 March 28 Flashcards Preview

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William of Tyre, writing in early 1180s, described how the strategic balance in Near East had titled against the Franks

sinfulness of the contemporaries
loss of advantage that religious zeal had provided
unification of Syria and Egypt



Today we'll look at the second and third aspects in the wake of the second crusade and ultimately how this led to the calling of the third crusade



The failure at Damascus in 1148 did not immediately lead to unification of Syria.

Some in Damascus thought Nur al-Din a bigger threat than Jerusalem

Damascus provided troops for Nur al-Din (leading in 1149 to Prince Raymond of Antioch's defeat and death), they also agreed to a new truce with Jerusalem

Would last until 1154 when Nur al-Din annexed Damscus



Damascus thus constantly playing both sides.
Paying tribute to one, supplying troops to the other.



Nur al-Din not the psycho that Zengi was.

He also recognized at the time the usefulness of the rhetoric of jihad and consciously used it. Possible that he genuinely believed what he was saying when he advocated holy war.



Religious propagandists travelled in Nur's armies.

"Until you see Jesus fleeing from Jerusalem"



But for all the rhetoric, focus of Nur al-Din's campaigning was other Muslims.
Damascus in 1154
Egypt after 1163
Mosul 1170
Treaties with Byzantine emperor in 1159 and Jerusalem in 1161



Nur al-Din cultivated an image as a just judge, educated and orthodox (but not a fanatic in the words of one of his biographers)



1161. Hajj
Rebuilt walls of Medina

Built an elaborate minbar (pulpit) in Aleppo 1168-9. Proclaiming jihad credentials.
Wanted to relocate it to al-Aqsa mosque.

Saladin fulfills this wish 20 years later



To understand the rise of Saladin we need to look to Egypt



In wake of 2nd Crusade, in the 1160s, Frankish defense strategy reoriented toward Egypt

Damascus tended toward Jerusalem anyways
Antioch a touching issue due to Byzantium (Manuel had asserted personal lordship over the city in 1159, made stronger by capture of the Prince of Antioch, Reynald of Chatillon, in 1161 by Nur al-Din)



Egypt also tempting:

Fatamid's deteriorating politically
Nur al-Din also looking at it

Egyptian fleet had been wiped out earlier by the Venetians and had yet to recover



A lot of politicking going on.

Vizier Shawar had been deposed in 1163. Nur al-Din sends is general Asad al-Din Shirkuh to restore him.

Shawar, now restored, turns and asks Franks for aid



Shirkuh saw an Egyptian invasion as anopportunity to establish independent power of his own. Takes his nephew with him as second-in-command.

Yusuf Ibn Ayyub, Saladin



Shirkuh's invasion successful, but he lacked reinforcements as Nur al-Din busy attacking Antioch.

Franks also distracted by Antioch

Both parties leave Egypt in 1164



New invasion in 1166 by Shirkuh, this time supported by Nur and Caliph

Shawar anticipated it. Calls on Franks again.

Both armies arrive in January 1167



Ends in another stalemate

Both leave Egypt



Comes to a head in 1168-69

King of Jerusalem, Amalric, attacks in October.

Shawar asks Shirkuh for help

Shawar assassinated in January 1169



Now Shirkuh the vizier

Dies in March

Saladin replaces him



Saladin is the 5th vizier in 6 years

Within a year he had consolidated his power in Egypt



In Sept 1171, Fatamid Caliph died

Saladin had the name of the Sunni Abbasid caliph inserted into Friday prayers

after 202 years, Fatamid caliphate at an end



Nur al-Din getting nervous over this upstart
Starting to prepare against him

Suddenly dies of a heart attack in May 1174

Coincidentally, July 1174 Amalric died of a prolonged fever



Saladin takes Damscus by October



Saladin's image becomes completely reimagined in the wake of the Third Crusade

We will look at this aspect of things more next week



At the time, people scared shitless over him.

Usamah Ibn-Munqidh



Saladin's first concern was securing Nur al-Din's inheritance, which he claimed as his own

Between 1174 and 1187, truces prevailed between Saladin and the crusader states



So why does he end up looking for a way to break those truces later?

Two explanations
1. Jihad
2. Power through patronage



1. Jihad

Believed time was right
God would grant success if society was purified (not unlike Bernard of Clairvaux)
New schools, hospices, removed illegal taxes



Tensions with Byz
Manuel had been planning to lead a major Byzantine crusade to establish himself as clear leader of Christendom. Major battle to finally push the Turks out of Asia Minor

Battle of Myriocephalum



Devastating loss for the Greeks

Turks take even more territory

Byz will play no further real role in Syria, Palestine, or Egypt



1180 Saladin allies with Turkish Sultan and the new Byz emperor in preparation to attack crusader states (emperor Andronikos)

West learns of this treaty. Betrayal

1182. Riots in Constantinople. Anti-Latin. Thousands massacred. Papal legate head chopped off, tied to dog's tail.



Back to Jihad and Saladin

Saladin a parvenue Kurd

Jihad a way of claiming authority and legitimacy

Show of public orthodoxy

Got formal recognition of his conquests from caliph in Baghdad, something Nur al-Din had done



2. Patronage

Practically, his power depended on his ability to reward his followers and allies

Any slackening of this rich stream of patronage threatened his authority

Territorial expansion provided the object and the sustenance for Saladin's policies



Saladin had a highly developed sense of opportunism, which led to his many successes more than outright military brilliance



But his success was also due to the 2nd thing William of Tyre mentioned: the crumbling from within of the Franks



Succession of Jerusalem Kings didn't bode well

Baldwin III: civil war with mother and brother
Amalric: possible bigamist
Baldwin IV: leper
Baldwin V: child
Sybil and Guy: woman and unpopular arriviste husband



1174-1186 constant jockeying for control of the regency, of ill and infant kings, and of royal patronage.



Practical issues beyond the who is sitting on the throne



Across the kingdom, there was a move toward castles and fiefs within lordships being acquired by wealthy eccls corporations



EG Caesarea, by 1187: 55% of landed property in religious hands, mostly military orders



Secular lordships thus withering.

Lack of new land being acquired meant that what revenues crown did have could not keep up with expenditures



But more than money and the falliability of the monarchal system

Outremer lacked men.

When Saladin turned his attentions to Jerusalem, only 2 knights were there to defend it



Baldin IV. No heirs
Baldwin V. Child king (1185-86)
2 sisters of Baldwin IV. Jockeying for power.
Sybil and Guy crowned



Reynald of Chatillon declares he will have nothing to do with Guy

Declares his lands of Antioch to be fully autonomous

Starts attacking Muslim caravans



This gives Saladin the excuse he needed to break the truce with the kingdom of Jerusalem



Saladin raised a huge army

July 1187 Battle of Hattin
Christians outwitted. Total defeat.
Nearly the full fighting strength of kingdom of Jerusalem killed or captured.

King Guy and barons captured
Thousands of Knights Templar and Hospitaller executed

Relic of True Cross captured and paraded upside down through streets of Damascus



Crusader states are left almost defenseless

Acre surrendered in July
Ascalon in Sept
Jerusalem Oct. 2 1187