298 Crusades Lecture 15 March 26 Flashcards Preview

298 Lectures > 298 Crusades Lecture 15 March 26 > Flashcards

Flashcards in 298 Crusades Lecture 15 March 26 Deck (62):

We ended last time with the 3 differences between 1st and 2nd crusade

1. Kings
2. Women
3. Corporate identity / non-feudal oaths



Conrad was the first to march, from Germany

Very large, numerous army

Fighting men, support troops, camp followers

Substantial contingents of unarmed pilgrims taking advantage of the armed protection



The army gained more people as it moved through Germany and into Hungary

Hungarian king Geza paid protection money



Greek emperor Manuel negotiated a German oath not to cause trouble in his territories

In return, access to markets and supplies

Up until Thrace, things went smoothly on the march through Greece



In Thrace, opportunities for plunder irresistable

Also, local wine

Bad combination

Drunken stragglers died, leaving rotting corpses for teh French to come across



Conrad reached Constantinople on 10 September

The city was already on military alert



This was bad timing for Manuel

Concern Germans were contemplating an attack on the city

In order to meet the potential German threat, Manuel had abandoned his campaign against the sultan of Rum and agreed to a treaty



When German crusaders learned of the treaty, aroused suspicion and anger.

Didn't help when what Manuel would/could supply in support did not match with the grandeur of Constantinople



Relations with France didn't promise to be better.

Byzantines had been trying to subjugate Cilicia and Antioch; Greeks ousting Latin clergy

Lay nobles with relatives in the principality complained and here hostile. Including the fact that Prince Raymond of Antioch was the uncle of Louis's queen, Eleanor of Aquitaine

Many knights in Outremer considered the king their overlord in an ancestral sense



In response, Louis felt a sense of ancestral responsibility to the knights in Outremer



One faction close to Louis wanted to ally with Roger of Sicily, who had gone forward with his attack against Byzantine Greece



Manuel can be forgiven for fearing a Franco-German-Sicilian alliance against him.

More complex: Manuel's wife was Conrad's sister-in-law



Conrad accepted guides and food before setting out, refusing to wait for the French

Splits his army in two, perhaps to prevent a mutiny.



Slow advance
Supplies run short
Easy targets for the Turks. Turks have adapted, Germans don't.



Germans eventually come under a hail of arrows.

Conrad hit by two, in the head.

Straggle back to Nicaea

Many abandon the crusade entirely
Sought Byz help to get back home
Others survived the arrows to die of sarvation



Army wrecked.
Rump can do nothing but try to join up with the French when they get to Nicaea



Germans quick to identify scapegoats

Greeks accused of misleading the army
Byz provided inadequate supplies

Conrad blamed himself, his companions, the Turks. Not the Greeks



In reality, failed due to:
Poor intel, bad logistics, bad tactics, over-optimistic strategy

as much as lack of Greek support and skill of the Turks



Switching over to the French

Effective march against fierce odds through Asia Minor

Faced lack of supplies and logistical support

Created disintegration



Once in Byz territory, French faced problems of exchange rates and inadequate supplies

Foraging "with plunder and pillage."



Greek relations deteriorate

Byz mercenaries cutting down French pillagers

Advance guard, denied a market, attacked Constantinople itself right when Louis' ambassadors engaging in delicate negotiations with Manuel



French increasingly saw Greeks as hostile, heretical, with dispicable social conventions

Siege mentality developed



While Manuel wined and dined Louis, a vocal contingent of Louis' advisors advocated assaulting Constantinople.



Manuel was alerted to these debates among the French.

Exerted French to cross Bosporus by squeezing the flow of supplies and spread false rumors that the Germans were winning great victories



French cross. Very quickly learned of the defeat of the Germans.

From that moment on, march east never lost a sense of crisis



Markets thinned out quickly.

Army forages.

Greeks exact reprisals on the Germans struggling to keep up with the French



In response, French put the Germans in the middle of the column

French soldiers couldn't resist taunting the Germans with cries of "Push, German"



Reports of soldiers deserting while still on the marrch



With the German army destroyed, Manuel seemed less nervous.

At most, Manuel probably helped only when and how it suited him.

At worst, he ensured that even if only passively, the odds were stacked against the westerners disrupting his political and diplomatic arrangements



Manuel cared more about the threat posed by Robert of Sicily in Greece than he did about Syria.

Saw his chance to reform the Byz-German alliance when Conrad fell ill at Ephesus.

Whisks him back to Constantinople and wines and dines him. And medicines him



Louis kept going

Handed over organization of the march to the Templars. All in army swore oaths to form a temporary fraternity, in which king himself joined.



Army, bedraggled, reaches Adalia

Louis persuaded by his nobles to take ship with them and as many knights as possible to get to Syria more quickly




Ask Byz for ships. Not enough.



He leaves behind the sick, the infrantry, and the rest with money for a Greek escort



This plan for the rest to march wrecked by renewed Turkish attacks.

Greek escort not wild about a long hazardous march that would only inflame their Muslim neighbors, with whom they shared local trade and markets.



The nobles left in charge abandoned the infantry and infirm and sailed on to Syria.

Infantry now abandoned, trapped between an unfriendly Greek city facing famine and teh Turks

Risk the field

Enormous defeat. Loss of thousands of men to Turkish service or slavery



Remarked William of Tyre on this episode

"Here the king left the people on foot and with his nobles went on board ship."



Louis probably saved his own skin unwittingly
Preserved a nucleus of the fighting force

However, his escape lacked nobility

Marks the final disintegration of the force he'd struggled (with success up until now) to hold together in the face of terrible odds



The destruction of the Christian armies in Asia Minor rang throughout the Muslim world.

Muslims confident that the infidel invasion would fail.



Louis, women, clergy, most of the nobles in Antioch

Raymond of Antioch Eleanor's uncle

Argues for assault on Aleppo. Lynchpin of Zengi's/Nur ad-Din's power



Louis doesn't like Raymond

Eleanor take's R's side

Rumors of affair. Reach Louis' ears

Eleanor's ultimatum: Aleppo or anullment



Rumor that Eleanor had had an affair with her uncle, Raymond of Antioch

No evidence

Hindsight colored by the divorce of 1152



Eleanor placed under house arrest

Louis goes to Jerusalem



French moved on to Jerusalem as for everyone there was an overwhelming desire to fulfill their vows at the Holy Sepulchre



Some assumed this was why Louis was so quick to abandon the idea of heading north for Edessa and instead went to Jerusalem.

Others note Louis had fallen out with Prince of Antioch



French fighting potential had not been extinguished.

Other contingents from the west reached the holy land in the following few weeks



Conrad rejoined the French and the second half of the split German army joined



Yet though the leadership largely in tact, there was no obvious plan of campaign



Debate over what to do next

Edessa too far away


Ally of Jerusalem
How long could it hold out against Nur ad-Din
Treaty with Muslims problematic to western crusaders



Decision ultimately was to attack Damascus.

Damascus had been a close ally of Jerusalem until 1146/47 when it began an uneasy alliance with Nur al-Din



Political context for Damascus attack

Queen Melisende exercised power on her own behalf. increasingly jealous of Baldwin III's growing autonomy



Damascus suited the moment

fertile land
no current treaty
major trading centre
provide a natural frontier and tilt the balance of power in Jerusalem's favor against Nur al-Din



Plan was to terrify the defenders into rapid submission or take the city with rapid assault. Crusaders not equipped for a prolonged siege.



After 2 days skirmishing, no imminent surrenders, Chrisitans moved to the eastern suburbs, supposedly to find a less well-fortified area to attack

Unclear to fathom why they made this move



New position: no cover, no water
No time to prepare even simple siege engines

Defenders reclaimed the fortified orchards and previous crusader camp



Defender morale revived

news of large Muslim relief armies led by Nur al-Din



Crusaders run away with tail between tehir legs

Utter humiliation



Immediate rumors of betrayal

Templar rumor

Second Crusade destroyed

immediately picked apart by commentators in the west



Led some to doubt the concept of holy war and the justice of fighting and killing Muslims



Louis blames Byz

Wants a new crusade against the true enemies of Christ: the Byzantine empire

Goes nowhere. No papal support.



1152. EleNor receives her anullment
Marries Henry Plantagenet



Nur ad-Din gets Damascus

Calls for unifying jihad against Chrisitian kingdoms in the area