298 Crusades Lecture 12 March 7 Flashcards Preview

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Many western observers associated the Jerusalem expedition's uniqueness with a general manifesto of
Spiritual redemption
Ecclesiastical discipline
Christian expansion



Example of the first crusaders did not, however, lead to a succession of large expeditions east, especially after disaster of 1101.



No mass movement emerged.



The images, attitudes, and actions of the First Crusade disseminated across western society widely, but fitfully

Often as rhetorical evangelical tropes as much as calls to arms



Popes integrated aspects of Urban's expedition into their authoritarian role as leader and protector of Christendom, within and beyond its frontiers

Holy war's language used against papal enemies in Italy; bandits in northern France; Muslims in Outremer and Spain



Let's start with some of the reception of the First Crusade



Awareness of it pervaded western elite culture



Scale and rapid production of histories by eyewitnesses and others. Remininiscences of returning veterans

Unparalleled in medieval history



Most of the texts originated in monasteries and cathedrals, but reflected and excited secular interests: local heroes; national pride.

Stirring tales of faith, bravery, suffering.

Theologians distilled the message of God's immanence and Christian duty

Miracles and butchery



Accurate knowledge of Islam and the Prophet remained almost non-existent in the West until translation of the Koran in 1140s by Peter the Venerable.

Brief quickening of interest in 1099. Most accounts rely on Byz sources and polemics or mangled accounts from Spain and returning pilgrims



Most discussion of Muslims remains racist and ignorant, never rising above the charactitures of medieval romances and epics.



The histories of the crusades created an adventure-story narrative that fed the language of preaching.

See, for example, the calls to crusade at Clermont by Urban



Not everyone saw this favorably. in mid-12th c., Gerhoh of Reichersberg, saw it as creating a creeping puritanism.

"no one dares to sing dirty songs in public"



There were close connections between the warlike laity and their families with religious houses.

Interwoven social context for reminiscence, sermon, encyclical, chroncile, song

Physcial context of visual reinforcement



Success of First Crusade silenced critics of the Gregorian propotion of penitential warfare

Encouraged papacy to brand its enemies as fit targets of holy war



Penitential war also useful for secular conflicts.

Higher clergy in northern France used this vocabulary and grants of remission of sin to encourage the policing of lawlessness in the region.

Even when the malefactor, Thomas of Marle, was a crusade veteran and made immortal int he Chanson d'Antioche.



Thomas of Marle's career of pillage belied the myth that service in crusade engineered a form of spiritual conversion.

Qualities that produced mayhem in Europe had not been suppressed, only channelled elsewhere (And hopefully to a good cause)



But for all this praise and lionizing of the Jerusalem expedition, early 12th century was not an "age of crusade"



Rather, it was pilgrimage that became the prime focus, not armed conflict.



Links with Jerusalem established the domestic respectability of lords, esp. kings.



In winter 1102-3, HRE Henry IV voiced his intent to travel to Jerusalem as a pilgrim.

Sceptics suspect a trick.

In private, Henry tells friend that it is conditional on a peace settlement with the papacy over the Investiture dispute. No deal, no pilgrimage.



Henry not the only one to use Jerusalem to resolve conflicts.

Murderers of Thomas Becket



As a technique of resolving feuds, Jerusalem journey became embedded into public culture of western Europe



This all predated 12th century -- became re-established and elevated after 1099



12th c. had an explosion of these pilgrimages, where before they were sporadic affairs



Military Orders



They end up attracting recruits and grants of property int he west

Established on a permanent footing the basic idealism of penitential warfare, mechanism for its expression, and a physcial presence throught Christendom reminding the west of the plight of the east



Order of the Hospital of St. John, the Hospitallers

est. in Jerusalem 1080



Provide care to poor and sick pilgrims

Originally dedicated to St John the Almsgiver (7th c. patriarch)



After 1099, gained new prominence in dealing with so many poor and sick pilgrims and crusaders

St. John the Baptist replaces John the Almsgiver as patron saint



Baldwin I gives it grants of property

1113 papal recognition as a charitable confraternity bound together into an order through the adoption of religious vows of poverty, chastity, obedience.

Looks little different from other new monastic orders, like the Augustinian canons



Structure of Hospitallers provided model for Templars

Martial function of Templars influenced Hospitallers



Hospitallers never lost their charitable role

But start being used to garrison frontier fortresses.




Also originated from helping pilgrims, but this order focused on protecting them.



1119 group of knights in Jerusalem, led by Hugh de Payns from Champagne and a Picard, Godfrey of St Omer, est a confraternity



They bind themselves with monastic vows of poverty, chastity, obedience

Official recognition 1120. Papacy 1129.



Originally lodged and housed around the royal palace at the al-Aqsa mosque (Christians tended to call it the Temple).

Order of the Temple of Solomon

Poor knights of Christ



Hugh of Payns went on a publicity tour in France, England, Scotland.

Very successful

Many grants of land, money, rents, customs, war materials



By 1150, Templars an extensive and wealthy landowner in western Europe

These become regional outposts



Templars being to engage in banking

Medieval travellers cheques



Templars strongly associated with the warriros of the first crusade.

They get full remission of sin.

Adopt red cross on their white habits.



But it was still a jarring idea to have people who were members of a religious order shedding blood.

To some of the time, it's monstrous



Provokes a need to defend the Templars


Bernard reading you have.



The doubts would never go away up until the end of the order with its abolition and persecution in the early fourteenth century



Model of these two orders quickly copied

Proliferation of religious confraternities was a pominent feature of the 12th and 13th c.
Some designed for military purposes



Templar rule become model for order of Teutonic Knights (1198)

Many of the new orders focussed on Christain frontiers
Eastern Europe



Larger orders (esp Templars and Hospitallars) became international organizations

Political influence

Even convents of nuns attached to Hospitallers in 13th c.



These military orders just one aspect of the great revival and extension of institutional religous life in teh 12th c.



In-class writing

Sum-up your impressions of the First crusade and its aftermath.



Entry into a military order not an alternative to being a crucesignatus

Alternative to being a Templar was to be a monk