2nd Exam, Ch 10 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 2nd Exam, Ch 10 Deck (42):
0

Motivetion is defined by psychologists as

A need or desire that energizes and directs behavior toward a goal.

1

A complex, unlearned, and fixed pattern of behavior common to all members of a species is called a(n)

Instinct

2

It is characteristic of bears to hibernate. This behavior is an example of

An instinct.

3

A need refers to

A physiological state that triggers motivational arousal

4

For a thirsty person, drinking water serves to reduce

A drive

5

Homeostasis, which is the goal of drive reduction, is defined as

the body's tendency to maintain a constant internal state.

6

Which of the folowing is cearly NOT an example of an incentive?

Dehydration

7

On some college football teams, players are rewarded for outstanding performance with a gold star on their helmets. This practice is an example of

Incentives

8

The arousal theory of motivationwould be most useful for understanding the aversive effects of

Boredom

9

The most basic or lowest-level need in Maslow's hierarchy of human motives includes the need for

Food and water

10

Maslow referred to the needs for purpose and meaning that lie beyond the self as

self-transcendence needs.

11

According to Maslow, our need for ______ must be met before we are preoccupied with satisfying our need for _______.

adequate clothing; self-esteem

12

Ancel Keys and his colleagues observed that men on a semistarvation diet

lost interest in sex and social activities.

13

The set point is

the specific body weight maintained automatically by most adults over long periods of time.

14

Our weight thermostats are somewhat flexible and are influenced by psychological as well as biological factors. Some researchers have therefore

Settling point

15

Anorexia nervosa is typically characterized by

an excessive fear of becoming fat

16

Twenty-two -year-old Tawana is slightly overweight and loves to eat, particularly snack foods and rich desserts. Fearful of becoming overweight, eating. Tawana most clearly suffers from

bulimia nervosa.

17

The World Health Organization identifies obesity as a high

BMI

18

19. The health risks associated with obesity are generally the greatest for those who carry their excess weight around their

Bellies

19

If your close friend becomes obese, the odds of you likewise becoming obese increase. This best illustrates the impact of _____ on obesity.

Social influence

20

Researchers have observed that the incidence of obesity and diabetes among 50,000 nurses was predicted by their

TV viewing habits.

21

Compared with people in the early 1900s, we are eating

a higher-sugar, higher-fat diet.

22

Evidence that obesity is influenced by factors in addition to genetics includes the fact that

The average adult American weighs more than 20 lbs more than they did 50 years ago

23

Lower rates of pregnancy have been observed among teens who have

participated in a service learning program as tutors or teachers' aides.

24

More than a dozen national surveys in the early 1990s indicated that in both Europe and the United States, about ____ percent of men are gay and about ____ percent of women are gay.

3 or 4; 1or 2

25

A homosexual orientation is

very persistent and difficult to change.

26

A biological influence on homosexuality is most clearly seen from evidence of

sexual relations between same-sex partners in several hundred different animal species.

27

With respect to sex research and human values, the text suggests that

sex research and education should be accompanied by open consideration of sexual values.

28

Evolutionary psychologists are most likely to suggest that almost all humans are genetically predisposed to

form close enduring relationships with fellow humans.

29

A deep sense of well being results when our need for relatedness is satisfied in balance with our psychological need for

Autonomy

30

Foolish conformity to peer pressure is most likely to be motivated by ____ needs.

Belongingness

31

When asked to describe personal episodes that made them feel particularly bad about themselves. about four times in five, people describe

A relationship difficulty

32

After spending years in the ocean, a mature salmon swims up its home river to return to its birthplace. This behavior is an example of

An instinct

33

Unlike in men, a high sex drive in women is likely to be associated with an increased same-sex attraction as well as an increased opposite-sex attraction. This best illustrates greater

erotic plasticity

34

The fraternal birth-order effect refers to a factor associated with

Sexual orientation

35

When asked what Is most necessary for a happy and meaningful life, most people first mention the Importance of satisfying their

belongingness

36

Which theory most clearly emphasizes the importance of homeostasis In motivation?

drive-reduction theory

37

Some students work hard in school to attain high grades. This best illustrates the importance of

Incentives

38

A starving rat will lose all interest in food if its ______ is destroyed.

lateral hypothalamus

39

To lose some of the weight she gained from binge eating, Melissa uses laxatives and exercises until she is exhausted. Melissa most clearly demonstrates symptom

bulimia nervosa

40

Over the past 50 years, the incidence of anorexia nervosa has steadily increased. This is most clearly attributable to

cultural ideals of beauty that increasingly encourage thinness

41

In a classic experiment, obese patients whose daily caloric intake was dramatically reduced lost only 6 percent of their weight. This was because of a

Decrease in metabolic rate