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Flashcards in 3 - Interferons Deck (52):
1

Interferon protects the cell from viral infections

True

2

Interferon are a family of secretory glycoproteins

True

3

There are 3 types of interferon

True (Type I, II and III)

4

IFN-alpha and IFN-beta are type I interferon

True

5

IFN-gamma is the only Type II interferon

True

6

Type I IFN have multiple biological activities I.e. Antiviral, antiproliferative, antiangiogenic etc

True

7

IFN-beta has 29% structural similarity to IFN-alpha

True

8

IFN-gamma does not share any structural homology to IFN-alpha and IFN-beta

True

9

Pegylated IFN I.e. IFN-alpha increases the time of the IFN in circulation to enable the frequency of dosing to be reduced

True

10

Pegylation is a process by which polyethylene glycol (PEG) is attached to IFN

True

11

IFN-alpha and IFN-gamma are excreted renally

True

12

IFN-alpha and IFN-gamma are metabolised under proteolytic degradation during renal tubular reabsorption (renal metabolism)

True

13

IFN are not protein bound

True

14

IFN-alpha has induced the formation of neutralising antibodies

True

15

Patients with high titres of anti-IFN-alpha neutralising antibodies have decreased response to therapy

True

16

IFN-alpha and IFN-beta (both Type I IFN) share the same receptor

True

17

IFN-gamma (Type II IFN) binds to a different receptor to IFN-alpha and IFN-beta (Type I IFN)

True

18

IFN has antiviral activity

True

19

IFN has antiproliferative activity

True

20

IFN has immunoregulatory activity

True

21

IFN-gamma (Type II IFN) is a more potent stimulator of MHC antigens than IFN-alpha and IFN-beta (both Type I IFN)

True

22

IFN-alpha inhibits angiogenesis

True

23

IFN-gamma is associated with tumour blood vessel destruction and necrosis

True

24

Both the antiviral activity and antiproliferative activity of IFN are due to induction of oligo-adenylate synthetase (2'-5' A synthetase)

True

25

IFN-alpha use in infants has been associated with permanent spastic diplegia

True

26

Due to the risk of permanent spastic diplegia associated with IFN-alpha use in infants and the tendency of haemangiomas to involute, IFN-alpha use in children <1 year old should be limited to life threatening or severely physically limiting haemangiomas

True (although it has been presumed that preservatives such as benzyl and phenol alcohol in the commercially injectible solution are the culprits and preservative-free saline solution is recommended)

27

Chronic Cutaneous IFN use may cause delayed re-epithelialization and potential systemic toxicity

True

28

IFN-alpha may have a role in treatment of SLE as elevated levels of IFN have been found to correlate with disease severity

True

29

The adverse effects of IFN are dose dependant

True

30

The adverse effects of IFN generally remit with continued therapy

True

31

The adverse effects of IFN improve with dose reduction

True

32

The adverse effects of IFN are rapidly reversible on cessation of therapy

True

33

Influenza like symptoms are the most commonly associated adverse effects associated with IFN therapy

True

34

Prophylactic acetaminophen, aspirin or NSAIDs prevent the influenza-like symptoms of IFN treatment

True

35

Fatal rhabdomyolysis and multiple organ failure has occurred in IFN-alpha use

True

36

Creatinine kinase (CK) and urinary myoglobin concentrations is recommended in IFN treatment

True (1 case of fatal rhabdomyolysis)

37

IFN needs to be discontinued in patients with evidence of rhabdomyolysis

True (reported case of fatal rhabdomyolysis)

38

IFN-gamma (Type II IFN) cam cause Increased serum triglycerides

True

39

IFN-alpha can cause hypotension, dysrhythmia, and tachycardia

True

40

Chest and back pain has been associated with IFN-beta

True

41

Depression and suicidal behaviour has been associated with IFN-alpha

True

42

IFN may cause GI adverse effects

True (nausea and diarrhoea can occur)

43

Collapsing focal segmental glomerulosclerosis may occur with treatment with IFN and resolves with cessation of treatment

True

44

Sarcoidosis has been associated in IFN-alpha treated patients

True (cessation of therapy led to granuloma regression)

45

Neutralising antibodies can develop in patients receiving IFN-alpha2a and IFN-alpha2b which appear specific to the recombinant IFN

True (does not occur with natural IFN)

46

IFN-gamma may induce local psoriasis

True (psoriatic lesions at sites of IFN-gamma injections)

47

IFN decreases the clearance of aminophylline

True (due to CYP 1A2 interaction)

48

Concomitant Zidovudine (anti retroviral therapy) treatment and IFN may increase the risk of haematologic complications

True

49

IFN-alpha2a in conjunction with Interleukin-2 may increase the risk of renal failure

True

50

IFN should be used cautiously in patients with debilitating medical conditions due to the influenza-like adverse effects

True

51

Subcutaneous administration of IFN is favoured over intramuscular injections in patients with thrombocytopenia

True

52

Neutropenia /leukopenia may occur with IFN therapy

True