Flashcards in 3 - PA Deck (198)
what is the definition of architectural programming?
important part of early design process, identify and organize the architectural, functional, aesthetic, operational, and budgetary needs of your client
put into written document called a "program"
name 5 phases that are performed during programming
1. gathering data: site surveys, use, building type, codes/zoning req, budget, schedule
2. establishing goals: interview of owner, design goals & potential issues
3. mapping functions: spatial requirements/sizes, adjacencies/relationships
4. setting priorities: order of importance based on budget
5. researching requirements: technical req, equipment, operations, performance
true or false: programming and architectural design are completely independent of one another
during programming, problems of the project are sought out and documented
during design, problems are discussed and solutions are developed
what four items should be considered during programming?
1. building function
2. building form
3. project budget
4. project schedule
describe the programming process
1. discuss goals of project with owner
2. organize all project-specific information (codes, site conditions, bldg users, etc.)
3. determine building hierarchy of spaces
4. determine priorities of owner
5. develop problem that must be solved through building design
if done correctly, programming should...
1. clarify owner's intentions
2. set mutually agreed upon design direction
3. reduce change orders during construction
4. minimize disputes btw. owner and architect
5. establish basis for resolving difference of opinion
6. minimize redundancy from wasted spaces or poor relationships
layer of water flowing underground (underground stream)
the presence of an aquifer could supply fresh water to the building, or limit the depth of the foundations
soil load bearing capacity
maximum amount of pressure a foundation soil can bear without harmful settlement
name 4 soil types and their capacities
1. bedrock: 10,000 psf
2. well graded gravel or sand: 3,000 - 12,000 psf
3. compacted sand or fill: 2,000 - 3,000 psf
4. silt or clay: 1,000 - 4,000 psf
ground water table
the layer below the surface soil when it is saturated, sometimes 2' below surface, or sometimes 200' below
depth of water table will determine the type of foundation you can use, if you will need extensive waterproofing, or if a basement is possible
soil types are classified based on:
sizes of the particles in the soil
name the soil types
gravel: well drained, able to bear loads
sand: well drained, can serve as foundation when graded
silt: stable when dry, swells when frozen, do not use when wet
clay: must be removed, too stiff when dry and too plastic when wet
which soil type is considered best to build on?
bedrock & gravel
what is a percolation test and when would it be used?
used to evaluate the rate at which soil will absorb water on site, necessary for septic draining or leach fields
can soil bearing capacity be increased? if so, how?
yes: fill, compaction, surcharging
what is a proctor test?
used to calculate maximum density that is required for the soil on a project site
evaluates native soils in both dry and wet conditions to determine the potential negative qualities of the soil
performed by dropping a hammer on a sample of soil several times (and then dried)
define compaction and surcharging
compaction: compressing soils to release air btw. grains, creates higher bearing capacity
surcharging: adding soils to the site to increase weight on soils and aid in compaction (lengthy process, can take 6-12 mo.)
name the four different levels of soil
level A: topsoil, essential for growth of plants, takes a long time to develop
level B: minerals, lies below plant roots, supports life
level C: weathered and fractured rock w/ little biological activity
level D: solid bedrock
why is the location of the frost line important?
indicates level where soil freezes
top of footings should be at or below frost line, avoids damage to the foundation due to moisture changes throughout the year
angle of repose
how soils form mounds when loose
sand & gravel are stiff, steeper angle of repose than silt & clay
what should you do if you discover large quantities of organic soils on a site?
remove and replace w/ alternate fill material
or, foundation piles need to extend through to solid bedrock or bearing soils
safe bearing capacity
ultimate bearing capacity of soil divided by safety factor of 2x or 4x
ensures site will not endure full ultimate bearing capacity and helps to avoid structural failure
science of relationship between an organism or community and its environment
the community comprises of all the living plants and animals occupying a given area
what are 6 strategies to reduce energy use?
1. solar panels
2. increase insulation
3. use insulated windows
4. orient building to sun to control heat gain
5. install light colored roof
6. use efficient light bulbs
what are 5 strategies to reduce water use?
1. use drip irrigation system for landscaping
2. use low-flow or waterless toilets
3. use native species and drought tolerant plants
4. collect graywater from showers & laundry, reuse to water yard or flush toilets
5. collect rainwater for reuse
how to determine the grade or slope of a site
g = V/H(100)
g = grade of slope
V = rise/vertical
H = run/horizontal
x100 to convert to %
name 4 general rules of thumb for site grading and what they are best used for
less than 4% slope is considered flat, suitable for all activities
4% - 10% = moderate, requires some effort to climb or descend
10% - 50% = steep, suitable only for limited activity
50% + = very steep, subject to soil erosion/collapse
what is max slope allowed for an accessible ramp?
45 degrees translates to what percentage slope?
100% (rise = run)