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1

what is the definition of architectural programming?

important part of early design process, identify and organize the architectural, functional, aesthetic, operational, and budgetary needs of your client

put into written document called a "program"

2

name 5 phases that are performed during programming

1. gathering data: site surveys, use, building type, codes/zoning req, budget, schedule
2. establishing goals: interview of owner, design goals & potential issues
3. mapping functions: spatial requirements/sizes, adjacencies/relationships
4. setting priorities: order of importance based on budget
5. researching requirements: technical req, equipment, operations, performance

3

true or false: programming and architectural design are completely independent of one another

true

during programming, problems of the project are sought out and documented

during design, problems are discussed and solutions are developed

4

what four items should be considered during programming?

1. building function
2. building form
3. project budget
4. project schedule

5

describe the programming process

1. discuss goals of project with owner
2. organize all project-specific information (codes, site conditions, bldg users, etc.)
3. determine building hierarchy of spaces
4. determine priorities of owner
5. develop problem that must be solved through building design

6

if done correctly, programming should...

1. clarify owner's intentions
2. set mutually agreed upon design direction
3. reduce change orders during construction
4. minimize disputes btw. owner and architect
5. establish basis for resolving difference of opinion
6. minimize redundancy from wasted spaces or poor relationships

7

aquifer

layer of water flowing underground (underground stream)
the presence of an aquifer could supply fresh water to the building, or limit the depth of the foundations

8

soil load bearing capacity

maximum amount of pressure a foundation soil can bear without harmful settlement

9

name 4 soil types and their capacities

1. bedrock: 10,000 psf
2. well graded gravel or sand: 3,000 - 12,000 psf
3. compacted sand or fill: 2,000 - 3,000 psf
4. silt or clay: 1,000 - 4,000 psf

10

ground water table

the layer below the surface soil when it is saturated, sometimes 2' below surface, or sometimes 200' below
depth of water table will determine the type of foundation you can use, if you will need extensive waterproofing, or if a basement is possible

11

soil types are classified based on:

sizes of the particles in the soil

12

name the soil types

gravel: well drained, able to bear loads
sand: well drained, can serve as foundation when graded
silt: stable when dry, swells when frozen, do not use when wet
clay: must be removed, too stiff when dry and too plastic when wet

13

which soil type is considered best to build on?

bedrock & gravel

14

what is a percolation test and when would it be used?

used to evaluate the rate at which soil will absorb water on site, necessary for septic draining or leach fields

15

can soil bearing capacity be increased? if so, how?

yes: fill, compaction, surcharging

16

what is a proctor test?

used to calculate maximum density that is required for the soil on a project site

evaluates native soils in both dry and wet conditions to determine the potential negative qualities of the soil

performed by dropping a hammer on a sample of soil several times (and then dried)

17

define compaction and surcharging

compaction: compressing soils to release air btw. grains, creates higher bearing capacity

surcharging: adding soils to the site to increase weight on soils and aid in compaction (lengthy process, can take 6-12 mo.)

18

name the four different levels of soil

level A: topsoil, essential for growth of plants, takes a long time to develop

level B: minerals, lies below plant roots, supports life

level C: weathered and fractured rock w/ little biological activity

level D: solid bedrock

19

why is the location of the frost line important?

indicates level where soil freezes

top of footings should be at or below frost line, avoids damage to the foundation due to moisture changes throughout the year

20

angle of repose

how soils form mounds when loose

sand & gravel are stiff, steeper angle of repose than silt & clay

21

what should you do if you discover large quantities of organic soils on a site?

remove and replace w/ alternate fill material

or, foundation piles need to extend through to solid bedrock or bearing soils

22

safe bearing capacity

ultimate bearing capacity of soil divided by safety factor of 2x or 4x

ensures site will not endure full ultimate bearing capacity and helps to avoid structural failure

23

ecology

science of relationship between an organism or community and its environment

the community comprises of all the living plants and animals occupying a given area

24

what are 6 strategies to reduce energy use?

1. solar panels
2. increase insulation
3. use insulated windows
4. orient building to sun to control heat gain
5. install light colored roof
6. use efficient light bulbs

25

what are 5 strategies to reduce water use?

1. use drip irrigation system for landscaping
2. use low-flow or waterless toilets
3. use native species and drought tolerant plants
4. collect graywater from showers & laundry, reuse to water yard or flush toilets
5. collect rainwater for reuse

26

how to determine the grade or slope of a site

g = V/H(100)

g = grade of slope
V = rise/vertical
H = run/horizontal
x100 to convert to %

27

name 4 general rules of thumb for site grading and what they are best used for

less than 4% slope is considered flat, suitable for all activities

4% - 10% = moderate, requires some effort to climb or descend

10% - 50% = steep, suitable only for limited activity

50% + = very steep, subject to soil erosion/collapse

28

what is max slope allowed for an accessible ramp?

1:12 (8.3%)

29

45 degrees translates to what percentage slope?

100% (rise = run)

30

why is solar orientation important when laying out a site design?

the more perpendicular the sun's rays are to the site, the greater the amount of solar radiation received

note the amount of solar radiation received to design a building that maintains a consistent internal temp