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name 3 site considerations in regards to architectural design

1. design requires an appropriate relationship btw. the structure and its site
2. should respond to natural characteristics of the site (form, climate, solar orientation, vegatation)
3. place in landscape to be seen, views of surrounding landscape visible from building


describe 5 concerns regarding site functionality that an architect should address

1. serve purpose it is intended to serve, function properly
2. express purpose it serves
3. use an economy of means to achieve its purpose
4. utilize technologies ingeniously
5. utilize materials properly


during programming, what aspects of spatial design should be taken into consideration?

- human scale at interior and exterior
- utilize familiar and commonplace building techniques of its locale
- graceful in shape/massing
- expression/assertive
- priority/hierarchy of parts
- offer human eye visually rich/interesting views
- establish relationship between interior & exterior


architects are required to conduct themselves in accordance with the moral code established in the architect's practice act. name at least 3 moral values essential to well thought-out design.

- integrity, honesty, wholeness in design
- expressive of human spirit
- demonstrate basic principles of architecture
- encompassing physical design concept
- encourage human contact
- activity, interaction, accomplishment
- do not prescribe or limit range of human activity


describe how a site can influence the form of a building

site: relationship w/ its buildings, blend into landscape, forms inspired by site

landscape: draw inspiration from surrounding trees & vegetation

climate: will affect overall form, window locations, thickness of walls, how to shed rain/snow


describe how ground slope can affect the design of your project site

- flat sites require less grading/excavation
- slope determines amount of rainwater that can be absorbed by soil, areas for driveways/parking, access to natural light & views


name at least 3 site features that may need to be preserved on a site

- landforms
- vegetation
- circulation systems
- water features
- furnishings & fixtures
- decorative elements
- subsurface archaeology


what are 5 methods for preserving features on the site?

- stabilizing, protecting, & preserving existing features
- minimize disturbance of terrain
- surveying/conducting field investigations
- evaluating condition of existing features
- repairing and/or replacing site features


describe the neighborhood concept

- the largest use of land is for residential needs
- designing a well-balanced and useful neighborhood benefits the community as a whole
- live, work, education, and recreation should all be located within close proximity to one another


according to clarence perry, what 6 elements must exist for a neighborhood to function properly?

1. no major traffic routes pass through the neighborhood
2. interior streets use a cul-de-sac and curvilinear layout
3. population of neighborhood determined by number of people req'd to support one elementary school
4. elementary school becomes focal point of neighborhood
5. neigborhood occupies approximately 160 acres at a density of 10 families per acre
6. neighborhood is served by shopping centers, churches, etc. and does not req. more than 1/2 mi. to walk to school


how does the neighborhood unit differ from the neighborhood theory?

3 neighborhoods group together to serve one high school

max. walking distance is 1 mile

many neighborhoods can be grouped together to form larger communities


describe 3 land patterns that have developed due to urban growth

- concentric: series of rings around central business district
- sector: land usage arranged in pie wedges radiating from city center
- multiple nuclei: city composed of several distinct central points


what 3 main forms are most modern cities based on?

1. finger plan = development along each side of a public transit corridor
2. cluster plan = development contains clusters of activity, major roads connect each cluster
3. satellite plan = variant of cluster plan but has a dominant center, often the original city


what are 4 site conditions that can affect the microclimate of a site?

- site latitude
- site elevation
- prevailing winds
- proximity to water
- proximity to mountains
- topography


what site elements can be studied to determine the effect of the microclimate on the site?

- location of plants & bodies of water
- amount & location of sun exposure
- prevailing wind patterns
- ground surface coverage


why is solar orientation important when laying out site design?

the more perpendicular the sun's rays are to the site, the greater amount of solar radiation received


what factors of sun radiation should be taken into consideration when designing a site?

- time of day
- azimuth
- duration of sun exposure
- slope of site


what climatic considerations should be evaluated during site design?

- temperature
- humidity
- solar radiation
- air movement
- air pollution


how does the level of the water table on the site affect the design of the foundation?

if water table less than 6' below surface, considered "high" and will limit foundation design

mat slab or pile foundation may be necessary


what is the best way to provide internal comfort in a building during a hot summer day?

- use large overhangs to shade from south/west sun for most of the day
- use thick concrete wall inside to absorb heat


how is a space heated at night during the winter if it contains thick concrete walls and floors and has large windows facing south?

- low winter sun warms south side during the day, stone or concrete floor stores heat, hot air builds up by ceiling
- stored heat in floor and walls released during the night


describe the 5 basic fundamentals of physics that affect internal building comfort?

- hot air rises
- high summer sun
- low winter sun
- thermal mass
- insulation


what is fenestration and how should this element be considered in regards to building design?

openings in building such as windows or doors

- glass is a poor insulator, heat escapes 20x more than insulated wall
- natural daylight reduces needs for artificial lighting (saves electricity and heat gain)


how does proper building siting affect the views for a project?

- create axis to draw eye toward view & enclose outdoor space
- locate service/utility at undesirable views


describe how maintaining a well-organized building design will help the project run more smoothly

- certain activities want to be centrally located (elevators, bathrooms)
- spaces used by majority o the people may be placed up front (lobby, reception)
- specialized purposes may be put further back (conf. rm.)


what considerations should be given for interior building materials?

low or no VOCs will help maintain air quality

paint, carpet, adhesives in cabinetry/woodwork & upholstery


formula for ground slope

g = V(rise) / H(run)


how does R-value differ from U-value

insulating value of windows measured in U-value = 1/R-value

the lower the U-value, the more insulation value it has


describe thermal mass & its importance to building design

the ability of a material to store temperature

- if insulation is how a material is able to hold in temperature, thermal mass is the ability to absorb and store temperature
- take a long time to heat up and cool down, helps keep bldgs at consistent temp


name 2 methods to incorporate passive cooling into a building

- arrange windows to encourage wind flow through spaces, allow ample ventilation
- use a "thermal chimney" (tall, vented space that directs rising heat up and out of a space w/ cool air entering below) - also called the stack effect