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what are 4 material characteristics that should be considered when selecting exterior materials for a building?

- properly used
- withstand elements
- how often does it require maintenance?
- how well does it perform for its intended use & longevity?


how should the performance of materials be considered during the design phase?

- tested to assure they will perform as expected
- life span, withstand normal wear & tear


how does building orientation affect natural daylighting?

- north = no direct sunlight
- south = fair amount year round


describe the treatments for a north facing window vs. east facing

- north: no direct light but an even glow from reflected light all day, in hot places they have almost no heat gain, in cold climates almost always cold and grey
- east: receive sunlight in morning, start warming building at beginning of day


describe the treatments for a south facing window vs. west facing

south: receive sunlight nearly all day; in hot climates use overhangs to block summer sun (a 2' overhang will shade summer, but allow winter in)
west: receive hot afternoon sun until sunset, much lower in sky so overhangs dont help, use louvers to control


what is a free body diagram?

to analyze forces on and within structures, use this technique from physics (FBD)

representation of a body and all forces & moments acting on it - does not include internal forces


what structural connection can resist either x or y forces, but not moment?

pinned connections


this type of structural connection only resists forces in the y direction

roller connections


within any structural member in bending, _____ is quantified as the maximum translation measured perpendicular to its central axis

deflection: vertical distance that the beam sags at midspan

usually expressed as a fraction of the span (often noted as greek letter delta)


the formula for deflection of a beam with a uniformly distributed load is:

delta = 5 wl4 / 384 EI


the fibers within a beam develop an internal moment to resist the moment caused by deflection. this resisting moment is called:

bending moment


the centroid of an area is conceptually defined as:

the center of gravity of a mass

for simple geometric shapes, this is easy... for many common asymmetrical shapes, it is calculated


a factor relating the shape of a structural section and the distribution of its material relative to a chosen axis is called:

a section's moment of inertia, usually denoted "I"

the units of moment intertia are in4 or inches to the fourth power


ratio of a sections moment of inertia and the distance between the neutral surface & outermost edge of the section, "c" is referred to as:

the section modulus

S = I / c


the 2 reasons that column buckling occurs are:

- if an applied load is eccentric, or if it doesn't occur exactly at a column's centroid, it will impart some degree of moment, causing bending

- no material is truly uniform in its internal composition; any very slight variation of the material will tend to allow buckling


finding this value quantifies a cross section's ability to resist buckling under an axial compressive load by relating its moment of inertia & area

radius of gyration = convenient parameter, providing measure of the resistance of a cross section to lateral buckling


a load imposed on a structural member at some point other than the centroid of the section is called:

eccentric load


bending stress is a function of the section modulus and the:

bending moment


define slenderness ratio

ratio of a wall or columns unsupported height/length to its thickness (measures ability to resist buckling)


vertical steel reinforcing within reinforced concrete columns essentially are very slender _____ when compressive stress is applied



a special kind of made up beam that uses members efficiently by placing them in pure compression or tension, when loaded properly, to carry loads over a span is called a:



the two methods for manually analyzing trusses are:

- method of joints
- method of sections


in this type of truss analysis, a cut is made passing through no more than 3 members, and the 3 equations of equilibrium are applied

method of sections


forces acting toward a joint indicate a truss member is in:




water saturated sediment temporarily loes strength & acts as a fluid

- must be space between particles that water can occupy
- dramatic impacts during an earthquake
- sands, muds, silts are most vulnerable (coastal)


seismic waves

oscillations at molecular level within the soil

- sudden relative displacement of very large masses & energy release results in waves rushing through surrounding rock & soil
- project outward from hypocenter and have different characteristics
- Primary/pressure waves, Secondary/shear waves, Surface waves


P waves

Primary/pressure seismic wave

- highest velocity, arrive first
- cause compression in soil in the direction of travel in alternating push-pull
- can travel through liquid


S waves

Secondary/shear seismic wave

- second highest velocity, arrive just after P wave
- cause shear in soil particles (motion perpendicular to direction of wave travel)
- damaging sideways & vertical accellerations
- can not travel through liquid


surface waves

- lowest velocity seismic wave, arrive after P & S waves
- veritcal displacement in earth's surface
- last longer w/ larger amplitudes, can be very destructive
- near surface of earth (similar to ocean wave)


stabilizing moment

a building's self-weight creates a moment in the opposite direction of its overturning moment

- load & resistance factor design
- allowable stress design