Flashcards in 3 Pulmonary Deck (41):
Asthma severity types: what are each daytime and noctural sxs?
Daytime sxs, noctural sxs:
1. intermittent: <2/wk, <2/mo
2. mild persistent: <1/day, >2 mo
3. mod persistent: >1/day, >1/week
4. severe persistent: >1/day, frequent
Asthma severity types: what are their PFTs (FEV1)?
1. intermittent: >80%
2. mild persistent: >80%
3. mod persistent: 60-80%
4. severe persistent: <60%
Asthma severity types: what are their txs?
All have SABA
1. intermittent: -
2. mild persistent: low dose ICS
3. mod persistent: LABA + low dose ICS
4. severe persistent: LABA + high dose ICS
5. refractory: PO Steroids
LABA can be replaced with LTA
Asthma exacerbation in ED: What PEFR goes into which severity categories? (generalization)
Asthma exacerbation: the thing that saves lives is ____
Paraneoplastic syndromes of lung cancers:
Squamous: PTH-rp (hyperCa)
Small cell: ADH (SIADH), ACTH (Cushing's), Lambert-Eaton,
Carcinoid: serotonoin syndrome
Carcinoid tumor: intestine vs lung, what similarities and differences?
-what lab test?
Same sxs: flushing, wheezing, diarrhea
intestine: liver mets, R sided heart valve dz
lung: serotoin starts in lung, so L sided heart valve fibrosis
Which lung ca often has pain, why?
Adenocarcinoma, b/c peripheral irritation of pleura
Pleural effusion: how much fluid before visible on CXR?
about 250cc before blunting of costophrenic angle.
If any positive, then exudate.
(2/3, 0.6, 0.5)
1. LDH <2/3 upper limit normal (200)
2. LDH (effusion/serum <0.6)
3. Total Protein (effusion/serum <0.5)
Pleural effusion causes:
Transudate (3 main ones)
Exudate(3 big ones, and more)
transudate: CHF, Cirrhosis (low protein), Nephrotic syndrome (low protein)
exudate: Infection, CA, TB. Also: PE, Hemothorax, chylothorax
Pt with pleural effusion that is loculated. Do what and why?
Can't do thoracentesis.
Do tube thoracostomy, to prevent empyema formation if parapneumonic effusion. If wait too long and empyema forms, must to thoracotomy.
Pleural effusion thoracentesis sample: how many tubes and what tests to order?
Tube 1: CBC with diff (polys for PNA, Lymphs for TB/CA, RBC for hemothorax/CA)
2: cytology (looking for CA)
3. glu, pH, total prot, LDH (for light's)
4. Gram stain, Cx, acid fast
Other tests possible
Pleural effusion: what test for TB? Other than acid fast and lymphs
ADA (adenosine deaminase)
Pt with PE. Also has met CA and short life expectancy. How to anticoag?
what is the exception to that rule?
Don't use warfarin or NOAC.
Use LMWH for rest of life.
If brain mets, do IVC filter b/c risk of ICH
PE pt. How to do Hep bridge to warfarin?
5 days Hep, or until INR 2-3, whichever is LONGER
How to start Heparin for DVT anticoag
1. loading dose (80u/kg IV)
2. maintenance dose (18u/kg/hr)
3. check PTT in 6h to redose if necessary
target PT 46-70
HIT--hep induced thrombocytopenia:
-when does it usu occur after starting Hep, first exposure vs repeat?
-if suspected, do what?
First exposure: 7 days
repeat: 3 days
Stop Hep, draw HIT panel, give Argatroban
Severity types of PE (4)
-what's the difference
-what is tx for each
1. asx PE, incidental discovery--d/c from ED, to LMWH bridge to coumadin
2. sx PE: Stay overnight on floor. No R heart strain (no abnormality with BNP, Trops, or Echo.) d/c with LMWH bridge to coumadin
3. submassive PE: findings of R heart strain, but no hypotension. abnormality of these 3 tests: BNP, Trops, Echo. Transfer to ICU with Hep to Coumadin bridge. Stay in hospital until bridge complete.
4. Massive PE: Hypotensive. give TPA. ICU with pressors.
CTEPH: what is this
chronic thromboembolic pulmonary HTN
-outpt workup in pts with Pulm HTN. Do angiography and thrombectomy endovascularly
Well's criteria (8)
1. PE most likely dx
2. Signs/sxs DVT
4. immobilization >3 days, or surgery w/i 4 weeks
5. hx DVT/PE
7. malignancy w/i 6 mo
<2: low prob
2-6: mod prob
Bronchitis in COPD: definition
productive cough for more than 3 mo in 2 consecutive years
Pt in ED with SOB. Has pitting edema, JVD, and HSM.
What hx and signs to differentiate CHF from COPD blue bloater?
In CHF, hx of orthopnea and PND. Also, lung crackles and S3/4
Crackles can be present in COPD
Why hypercapnia in COPD? what is significance?
Pink puffers have barrel chests, with air trapping. CO2 is trapped.
Chronic CO2 retention means resp drive is from Low O2, NOT HIGH CO2 (body used to that). So, be careful in giving too high oxygenation, could eliminate hypoxic resp drive.
What's main diff between COPD and asthma in PFTs?
Asthma is reversible (with bronchodilators). Both obstructive process
COPD exacerbation tx
COPD: when to do chronic home O2?
Strict criteria, to make sure not to eliminate hypoxic drive. (from chronic hypercapnia)
If pO2 <55 or spO2 <88%, chronic home O2 indicated with goal spO2 >90%
COPD pt in ICU. What target sats?
COPD outpt meds, in increasing severity of dz?
-antichol (tiotropium, spiriva)
COPD exac: which abx to use for ppx?
Doxy is best, if no signs of infection /PNA
Could also use Azithro. Moxi try to avoid in elderly
COPD: what 2 things improve mortality?
1. smoking cessation
2. home O2 if spO2<88% or paO2<55
ARDS: What PaO2 to FiO2 ratio
ARDS pt in ICU: What happens if you give too much O2 (high FiO2)?
Superconcentrated O2 means free radicals. Can lead to pulmonary fibrosis. This looks similar to ARDS on CXR.
Pt intubate in ICU: When to do tracheostomy? Why?
Laryngeal stenosis concern if pt intubated for 14 days. Do trach soon if you suspect >14 days intubated, otherwise delay.
what are the names and criteria for the acute and chronic versions?
acute: AIP--acute interstitial pneumonitis. <6 weeks
chronic, >6mo insidious: IPF. Instertitial pulmonary fibrosis
ILD: drug causes? (2)
Silicosis: what 2 things to know
1. CXR finding of upper lobe nodules, looks like TB
2. Screen annually for TB b/c increased risk
Coal miner's lung: what to konw
-Caplan's syndrome: RA. A pt with bilateral symmetrical arthralgia and restrictive lung dz should be worked up for RA. (Rh factor, anti-CCP)
asbestosis: what on CXR? What on bx?
barbell shaped asbestos bodies
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis: what is the vignette to know
Pt describes SOB sxs only during workweek. Resolves on weekends or long holidays.
HP takes 24h to 'set in' and out. Remove exposure is tx. (pigeon feathers)