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Flashcards in 3 Pulmonary Deck (41):

Asthma severity types: what are each daytime and noctural sxs?

Daytime sxs, noctural sxs:

1. intermittent: <2/wk, <2/mo
2. mild persistent: <1/day, >2 mo
3. mod persistent: >1/day, >1/week
4. severe persistent: >1/day, frequent
5. refractory


Asthma severity types: what are their PFTs (FEV1)?

1. intermittent: >80%
2. mild persistent: >80%
3. mod persistent: 60-80%
4. severe persistent: <60%
5. refractory


Asthma severity types: what are their txs?

All have SABA

1. intermittent: -
2. mild persistent: low dose ICS
3. mod persistent: LABA + low dose ICS
4. severe persistent: LABA + high dose ICS
5. refractory: PO Steroids

LABA can be replaced with LTA


Asthma exacerbation in ED: What PEFR goes into which severity categories? (generalization)

PEFR>70% mild
50-70 mod
<50 severe


Asthma exacerbation: the thing that saves lives is ____



Paraneoplastic syndromes of lung cancers:
-small cell

Squamous: PTH-rp (hyperCa)
Small cell: ADH (SIADH), ACTH (Cushing's), Lambert-Eaton,
Carcinoid: serotonoin syndrome


Carcinoid tumor: intestine vs lung, what similarities and differences?
-what lab test?

Same sxs: flushing, wheezing, diarrhea

intestine: liver mets, R sided heart valve dz
lung: serotoin starts in lung, so L sided heart valve fibrosis

5-HIAA urine


Which lung ca often has pain, why?

Adenocarcinoma, b/c peripheral irritation of pleura


Pleural effusion: how much fluid before visible on CXR?

about 250cc before blunting of costophrenic angle.


Light's criteria

If any positive, then exudate.
(2/3, 0.6, 0.5)

1. LDH <2/3 upper limit normal (200)
2. LDH (effusion/serum <0.6)
3. Total Protein (effusion/serum <0.5)


Pleural effusion causes:
Transudate (3 main ones)
Exudate(3 big ones, and more)

transudate: CHF, Cirrhosis (low protein), Nephrotic syndrome (low protein)

exudate: Infection, CA, TB. Also: PE, Hemothorax, chylothorax


Pt with pleural effusion that is loculated. Do what and why?

Can't do thoracentesis.
Do tube thoracostomy, to prevent empyema formation if parapneumonic effusion. If wait too long and empyema forms, must to thoracotomy.


Pleural effusion thoracentesis sample: how many tubes and what tests to order?

Tube 1: CBC with diff (polys for PNA, Lymphs for TB/CA, RBC for hemothorax/CA)
2: cytology (looking for CA)
3. glu, pH, total prot, LDH (for light's)
4. Gram stain, Cx, acid fast

Other tests possible


Pleural effusion: what test for TB? Other than acid fast and lymphs

ADA (adenosine deaminase)


Pt with PE. Also has met CA and short life expectancy. How to anticoag?

what is the exception to that rule?

Don't use warfarin or NOAC.
Use LMWH for rest of life.

If brain mets, do IVC filter b/c risk of ICH


PE pt. How to do Hep bridge to warfarin?

5 days Hep, or until INR 2-3, whichever is LONGER


How to start Heparin for DVT anticoag

1. loading dose (80u/kg IV)
2. maintenance dose (18u/kg/hr)
3. check PTT in 6h to redose if necessary

target PT 46-70


HIT--hep induced thrombocytopenia:
-when does it usu occur after starting Hep, first exposure vs repeat?
-if suspected, do what?

First exposure: 7 days
repeat: 3 days

Stop Hep, draw HIT panel, give Argatroban


Severity types of PE (4)
-what's the difference
-what is tx for each

1. asx PE, incidental discovery--d/c from ED, to LMWH bridge to coumadin

2. sx PE: Stay overnight on floor. No R heart strain (no abnormality with BNP, Trops, or Echo.) d/c with LMWH bridge to coumadin

3. submassive PE: findings of R heart strain, but no hypotension. abnormality of these 3 tests: BNP, Trops, Echo. Transfer to ICU with Hep to Coumadin bridge. Stay in hospital until bridge complete.

4. Massive PE: Hypotensive. give TPA. ICU with pressors.


CTEPH: what is this

chronic thromboembolic pulmonary HTN
-outpt workup in pts with Pulm HTN. Do angiography and thrombectomy endovascularly


Well's criteria (8)

3 each:
1. PE most likely dx
2. Signs/sxs DVT

1.5 each
3. HR>100
4. immobilization >3 days, or surgery w/i 4 weeks
5. hx DVT/PE

1 each:
6. hemoptysis
7. malignancy w/i 6 mo

<2: low prob
2-6: mod prob
>6 high


Bronchitis in COPD: definition

productive cough for more than 3 mo in 2 consecutive years


Pt in ED with SOB. Has pitting edema, JVD, and HSM.

What hx and signs to differentiate CHF from COPD blue bloater?

In CHF, hx of orthopnea and PND. Also, lung crackles and S3/4

Crackles can be present in COPD


Why hypercapnia in COPD? what is significance?

Pink puffers have barrel chests, with air trapping. CO2 is trapped.

Chronic CO2 retention means resp drive is from Low O2, NOT HIGH CO2 (body used to that). So, be careful in giving too high oxygenation, could eliminate hypoxic resp drive.


What's main diff between COPD and asthma in PFTs?

Asthma is reversible (with bronchodilators). Both obstructive process


COPD exacerbation tx

Preventive (Abx)
Dilators (Duonebs)


COPD: when to do chronic home O2?

Strict criteria, to make sure not to eliminate hypoxic drive. (from chronic hypercapnia)

If pO2 <55 or spO2 <88%, chronic home O2 indicated with goal spO2 >90%


COPD pt in ICU. What target sats?



COPD outpt meds, in increasing severity of dz?

-antichol (tiotropium, spiriva)
-LABA (formoterol)
-ICS (beclomethasone)
-PDE4-i (oral)


COPD exac: which abx to use for ppx?

Doxy is best, if no signs of infection /PNA

Could also use Azithro. Moxi try to avoid in elderly


COPD: what 2 things improve mortality?

1. smoking cessation
2. home O2 if spO2<88% or paO2<55


ARDS: What PaO2 to FiO2 ratio



ARDS pt in ICU: What happens if you give too much O2 (high FiO2)?

Superconcentrated O2 means free radicals. Can lead to pulmonary fibrosis. This looks similar to ARDS on CXR.


Pt intubate in ICU: When to do tracheostomy? Why?

Laryngeal stenosis concern if pt intubated for 14 days. Do trach soon if you suspect >14 days intubated, otherwise delay.


ILD, idiopathic.
what are the names and criteria for the acute and chronic versions?

acute: AIP--acute interstitial pneumonitis. <6 weeks

chronic, >6mo insidious: IPF. Instertitial pulmonary fibrosis


ILD: drug causes? (2)

bleomycin, amio


Silicosis: what 2 things to know

1. CXR finding of upper lobe nodules, looks like TB
2. Screen annually for TB b/c increased risk


Coal miner's lung: what to konw

-Caplan's syndrome: RA. A pt with bilateral symmetrical arthralgia and restrictive lung dz should be worked up for RA. (Rh factor, anti-CCP)


asbestosis: what on CXR? What on bx?

pleural plaques.

barbell shaped asbestos bodies


Hypersensitivity pneumonitis: what is the vignette to know

Pt describes SOB sxs only during workweek. Resolves on weekends or long holidays.

HP takes 24h to 'set in' and out. Remove exposure is tx. (pigeon feathers)

noncaseating granulomas


Sarcoidosis: what extrapulm sxs to know? (4)

also, levels of what may be elevated in blood?

-heart block
-bells palsy
-erythema nodosum

hypercalcemia from increased 1,25-vitD. Sarcoid can create this.