Flashcards in 7 Heme Onc Deck (34)
think what 4 causes for the test
1. pernicious anemia--no IF
2. crohn's--attacks TI (absorption)
3. pancreatic insuff (need proteases to release from salivary R-binder)
4. Fish tapeworm
B12 vs Folate equivocal, get what?
Get MMA. If elevated, then B12 deficiency
Schilling's test for B12
1. give IM nonradioactive B12, saturate liver binding sites.
2. give oral radioactive B12, then check if radioactive excreted in urine. If radioactive is present in urine, then it can be absorbed in gut.
3. If not, then add other things to aid absorption: IF, abx if bacterial overgrowth, and pancreatic enzymes
Fe deficiency anemia.
-what is normal Fe daily requirement and max?
-how long to replace serum Fe, and how long to replace Fe stores?
-How much Fe in 1 PRBC unit?
1 mg/day, max 3 mg/day
serum Fe: 6 weeks
stores: 6 mo
350g Fe in 1 PRBC unit. So, 1 year's supply.
anemia of chronic dz
-tx and decision making
Tx underlying dz. (eg SLE, RA). If can't, can give EPO. helps body utilize Fe stores.
If Hgb>10, f/u labs in 3 mo
If <10, give EPO
Pt with microcytic anemia on blood test, but normal Fe studies. Think what. then do what/look for what
To dx, get Hgb electrophoresis. Can show B-Thal positive. But if neg, then A-thal is dx of exclusion
Also, LDH normal, but retic count low.
Thalassemia: how to think about it.
Pt either presents:
MILD: Asx--no tx.
-Asian person with isolated anemia and low retic count, LDH normal. Told couldn't donate blood. (if Hgb electrophoresis negative, must be A-thal)
SEVERE: severe anemia--transfusion required, + deferoxamine
-16yoM comes with Hgb 3.2
Pt with microcytic anemia. Fe studies show elevated serum Fe.
Get pt away from lead, give B6, Confirm dx with bone marrow bx. (ringed sideroblasts)
causes to know (5)
Normocytic hemolytic anemias: (4)
name each, smear, confirm test, tx
-osmotic fragility test
-Folate and Fe if mild, splenectomy if severe
-Smear: Heinz bodies and Bite cells
-G6PD levels 6-8 wks after attack
4. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia
-Coombs test (IgG)
-steroids, IVIG, splenectomy
Blood smear: you see spherocytes. think what
Either spherocytosis, or AIHA.
Do Coombs. If positive AIHA. negative, spherocytosis.
PNH: what to remember
can have venous thrombosis in intra-abdominal veins, causing abd pain.
what test for avascular necrosis of hip/femur to know
DEXA scan screening
7, 47, 67, 87
ALL, CML, AML (must be older than CML for blast crisis), CLL
You suspect AML or ALL. What dx tests to do and not do
CBC not helpful, could be up or down
Blood smear, look for blasts.
Confirm with BM bx, >20% blsts
M3 subtype of AML.
Can go into DIC
Tx with ATRA (vit A)
Leukemias: what special thing to remember about each?
ALL: CNS PPx with intrathecal Ara-C. Also scrotum
AML: Auer rods, DIC
CML: Blast crisis to AML. imatinib to delay.
CLL: do no harm if old.
-how affects tx?
1: 1 group lymph nodes
2: >1 group nodes on same side of diaphragm
3: >1 group nodes, opposite side of diaphragm
4. diffuse dz (blood, bone marrow)
2a or less: radiation (can add chemo IRL)
2b or more: chemo
B means B-sxs present
-common classic sxs (3)
-uncommon sxs to know (2)
fevers, night sweats, weight loss.
-Pel-Epstein fevers: cyclical over weeks
-ETOH tender LAD
chemo tox man (5)
cisplatin: oto and nephrotox
bleomycin: lung fibrosis
doxorubicin, adriamycin: cardiomyopathy
Cyclophosphamide: hemorrhagic cystitis (mesna)
renal insuff (myeloma kidney)
-3 mechs to know, their sxs, and diagnostic findings
Bad plasma cells make these:
1. bad monoclonal Ab.
-Protein gap, with M-spike on SPEP
2. Bence Jones proteins (bad Ig's)
-protein gap, UPEP
3. Osteoclast activating factor
-hyperCa, bone lesions
you suspect multiple myeloma. do what tests:
-SPEP: m spike
-UPEP: bence jones proteins
-BM Bx to confirm. >10% plasma cells
-conversion rate to MM, how often check labs
-SPEP+ but no other MM findings
-Conversion to MM 2%/year. check labs q6mo.
-hyperviscosity syndrome (HA, AMS, blurry vision, mucosal bleeding)+peripheral neuropathy.
62yo male with gum bleeding when brushing teeth, sleeping more. Trouble driving with blurry vision. Feet tingling
->10% lymphs on BM bx
-plasmapheresis to prevent stroke. also chemo.
von willebrand's disease
-tx in severe acute bleeding
low vWF, also low F8
-vWF assay or platelet fxn test
-acute severe: can give Cryo (F8)
general platelet transfusion rules
<50k and bleeding
when in thrombocytopenia to NOT give platelets
TTP/HUS. just eats more of it. do plasmapheresis
TTP, HIT, DIC, ITP:
TTP: plasmapheresis, no plt
HIT: stop Hep, do argatroban
DIC: give cryo, FFP, plt, blood
ITP: IVIG, steroids. refractory splenectomy