3- Reinforcement arrangements and applied to settings 1: selecting reinforcers and contingencies Flashcards Preview

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1

Simplest
arrangement; deliver a discrete consequence for each discrete response
 Not common

Continuous reinforcement:

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: Reinforcement only sometimes follows the target response
-more common

Intermittent reinforcement

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Reinforcement is provided for the first response that follows some amount of time
Two types:

Fixed interval

Variable interval

Interval schedules:

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Reinforcer delivered contingent on first response after some constant time period has elapsed

Fixed-interval (FI):

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Similarly arrange reinforcers contingent on the first response after a specified time, but the time varies from one reinforcer to the next

Variable-interval (VI):

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Arranges reinforcers for the last of a number of responses that varies from one reinforcer to the next.

Variable ratio

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Reinforcement is provided following a pre-specified number of responses

There are two varieties of ratio schedules:

- Fixed Ratio FR

_Variable Ratio VR

Ratio schedules

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Deliver reinforcer after the last of a fixed number of responses

 Fixed ratio (FR

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Deliver stimuli known in other contexts to be reinforcers solely on the basis of time, independent of responding

In a Fixed time schedule that Reinforcer is delivered after some constant time period has elapsed

A Variable time (VT) Similarly arranges reinforcers after a specified time, but the time varies from one reinforcer to the next

Response-independent time-based) schedule

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Of low rate (DRL)t s without response, then 1 response

Of High Rate (DRH) 1 response within t s or less of last response

Of other behavior (DRO) t s without a response

Of alternative behavior (DRA) Contingent on alternative response, often in absence of target response

Some other basic Schedules

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When a reinforcer follows a response, it’s effect depends on its relation not only to that response but also to other responses preceding it

All are followed by the reinforcer even
though only the last response produced it

 E.g., if an error is immediately followed by
a reinforced correct response in an
instructional procedure, that reinforcer will
probably strengthen the error along with
the correct response, at least temporarily

Delay Contingncies

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Response classes one wishes to
strengthen may vary in terms of how
well established they are.

From Not at all established to fully established but unmotivated

Selecting responses

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Task materials and relevant instructions do not occasion predetermined level of performance in absence of prompts

Skill deficit

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: The skill is intact, but the person is unmotivated to respond under appropriate stimulus conditions

can be accurately distinguished from skill deficits on basis of whether supplemental reinforcement for correct responding rapidly increases accuracy




Performance (or motivational deficit)

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 If reinforcement contingency very rapidly eliminates a performance deficit, the skill must already have been learned

 Skills deficits, on the other hand, may
require different interventions depending
on the learner’s abilities and whether some of the skill has already been learned

Performance or Skill Deficit?

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Some property of responding is gradually changed by differentially reinforcing successive approximations to target behavior

Extinction increases RESPONSE Variability (Some behavior must be already occurring )

Frequent reinforcer delivery can result in satiation and may strengthen early responses

Infrequent delivery may decrease or extinguish responding

Shaping

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May aide in Shaping

Used as a systematic way to decide which approximations to reinforce and how often

Specifies changes in reinforcement CRITERIA (e.g., based on latency, effort, location or duration) as behavior moves toward the shaping target

To be reinforced, the next response must fall
into some PORTION of the sampled distribution
(e.g., above the 70th percentile)

The reinforcement criterion changes as progress is made toward the target

Lag Schedule is an example

Percentile Schedules

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Use;

Extinction induced variation

Lag- reinforcement schedules
- A Type of percentile schedule
Lag = number of responses separating the current response from an earlier one like it

 In a lag x reinforcement schedule, the
current response is reinforced if it differs
from the last x preceding responses along
the specified dimension from an earlier one like it

Ex, Shows an increased Variety of block building structures
Some additional training sometimes required.

To increase response diversity

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Often used when a skill DEFICIT present

Multiple types of Prompting strategies
least to most
Verbal
Gestural
Physical guidance
May include allowing some time for independent responding.

When prompting us required, question where in the sequence to deliver reinforcer
• Reinforcing only unprompted correct Responses may lead to INFREQUENT...., Reinforcers
•Reinforcing physically guided responses: Risk strengthening behavior that will not generalize beyond the learning setting

Prompting

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Research has examined differential reinforcement of prompted and unprompted responding to achieve this goal, using:

-Different reinforcement schedules

- Different quality reinforcers

To Promote INDEPENDENT responding:
Ultimate goal of prompting is too...

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Video ex;

Three conditions:

CRF/CRF (Independent and prompted, respectively
CRF/FR 3
CRF/EXT

Differential reinforcement: an unprompted response got food and praise while a prompted response got praise only.

Non differential reinforcement: Unprompted and prompted responses both get reinforcers and praise

Least to most prompting (example)

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May be more RAPIDLY acquired or increase more reliably when Unprompted responses differentially reinforced (no reinforcement for
prompted responses). OR..

...Higher reinforcement rates arranged for
independent than for prompted responses

Independent responding

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naturally related to the responses that produces

An intrinsic reward

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Arbitrarily related to the responses that produce it. Example, music is an intrinsic outcome of playing an instrument, the music teachers praise Is extrinsic To the playing.

Extrinsic rewards

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Reinforcement contingencies (Extrinsic rewards) Lead to decrements enjoyment (Intrinsic rewards) and thus result in decreases in engagement.

Fueled controversy regarding use of reinforcement in educational settings
..”Extrinsic motivators – including A’ S, sometimes praise, and other words are not merely an affective over the long haul but counterproductive with respect to things that concern us most: desire to learn, commitment to good values, and so on
Alfie KOHN, educational leadership

Strongest detrimental effect when tangible given for performance independent delivery

Overjustification hypothesis-

Extrinsic reinforcement and intrinsic reinforcement

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Meta-Analysis of available research using effect sizes.

Separated effects according to reward type:

Reward for what (Quality dependent, completion dependent, performance independent
What sort of reward (Tangible, verbal)

Examined separate affects on ENGAGEMENT (free time) And attitudes towards task

Calculation of effect sizes:
Experimental group mean - control group mean divided by pooled standard deviation

Overjustification study:Eisenberger & Cameron (1996):

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Interpretation of effect sizes:

EF < 1 EFFECT of the independent variable: (detrimental effects Of reward)

EF > than 1 = no effect of the independent variable (No detrimental effects)

Eisenberger & Cameron (1996): Overjustification

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SATIATION especially when reinforcers increase task engagement or less and motivation is examined for brief periods immediately after reward period.


(Overjustification ) Effects In IDD
What may account for what appears to be less and intrinsic motivation for people with developmental disabilities?

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Examined role of concurrently available ALTERNATIVE activities and SATIATION in “Overjustification

General procedures:
(A) Baseline: No programmed consequences
for engagement with target activity

(B) Reinforcement: Piece of preferred food
contingent on 30 s engagement with target activity

(A) Return to baseline: No programmed
consequences for engagement with target activity

Overjustification
 Peters & Vollmer (2014):

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1. Contrast Effects

2. Learned helplessness

Accounts for intrinsic motivation And learned helplessness phenomenon