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Flashcards in ASR 1 Deck (23)
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1

ASR #1
 The book Verbal Behavior contains

a. A section describing research into verbal operants

b. A section describing how to teach verbal operants

c. An analysis of what controls verbal operants

d. A description of how to help children with autism

C

2

ASR #2

 Skinner defines verbal behavior as

a. The expression of wants and needs

b. Behavior reinforced through the mediation of others

c. Behavior reflecting sending and receiving messages

d. Communication requiring natural language device

B

3

ASR #3
 Skinner argued that

a. Some modalities were better than others

b. Topographical selection systems are optimal

c. Pictures were the easiest modality to understand

d. We cannot specify any one form, mode or medium

D

4

ASR #4
 Verbal operants

a. Are defined by their antecedent and
consequence relationships
b. Can be identified by unique aspects
of the behavior itself
c. Are similar to the grammatical parts
of speech
d. Reflect elicited and emotional
properties of language

A

5

ASR #5
 The mand:
a. Must be preceded by a non-human
aspect of the environment
b. Is the first verbal operant that Skinner
proved by research and observation
c. Requires nothing specific in the
environment and yet specifies the
reinforcer
d. Should always be accompanied by
social praise from the listener

C

6

ASR #6
The tact:
a. Results in direct and material
consequences

b. Results in social consequences

c. Is readily learned by children with
autism

d. Can only be taught after mands
are acquired

B

7

ASR #7
Impure verbal operants:

a. Reflect inappropriate environmental control

b. Should be avoided at all costs

c. Are a hindrance to communication

d. Involve multiple sources of antecedent and consequence control

D

8

ASR #8
 To change from one verbal operant to another:
a. Add or remove prior sources of
current control
b. Always use the echoic to help
generate the new form
c. Only involves removing a source of
stimulus control
d. Can only be accomplished by a
behavior analyst

A

9

ASR #9
Mary walks into a room and sees
Jimmy drinking a soda. Mary says,
“Soda” and Jimmy shares his drink-
this statement is a:
a. Pure mand
b. Pure tact
c. Mand-tact
d. Intraverbal-mand

C

10

ASR #10
 An Intraverbal-mand-tact:
a. Is preceded by verbal behavior from
someone else and an aspect of the
environment and results in direct
reinforcement
b. Is preceded by a question and results in
praise
c. Reflects spontaneous communication by
the speaker
d. Cannot lead to lessons involving the
pure Intraverba

A

11

ASR #11
 The changes in the PECS protocol:
a. Begin with the tact and gradually move
to the mand
b. Begin with the pure mand and end up
with spontaneous communication
c. Were designed by chance and
fortunate observations
d. Are guided by the analysis of pure and
multiply controlled verbal operants

D

12

ASR #12
 The autoclitic:
a. Is controlled by aspects related to the
speaker (or the speaker’s behavior)
b. Is the most common verbal operant
for those with ASD
c. Is governed by environmental
attributes (i.e., color, size, shape, etc.)
d. Does not involve syntax or grammar

A

13

ASR #13
PECS was developed to teach:
a. Preschoolers
b. Speech
c. Individuals with autism
d. Functional communication

D

14

ASR #14
 Prior to teaching PECS, a trainer must:
a. Teach an individual to match
pictures to objects
b. Teach an individual to imitate speech
c. Conduct a reinforcer assessment to
identify powerful reinforcers
d. Teach eye contact

C

15

ASR #15
 PECS focuses upon:
a. Teaching eye-contact and instructional control as prerequisites
b. Teaching discrimination skills prior to
social approach
c. Rapidly developing social communication approach prior to discrimination skills
d. Teaching motor imitation prior to vocal
imitation


C

16

ASR #16
 Phase I of PECS:
a. Requires two trainers to teach
initiation of communication
b. Can be taught by a single, certified
trainer
c. Is always acquired within five
minutes
d. Can be taught without identifying
powerful reinforcers

A

17

ASR #17
The second phase of PECS:
a. Expands spontaneity and
eliminates extraneous cues
b. Introduces discrimination between
pictures
c. Can be completed by two trainers
d. Introduces social reinforcers

A

18

ASR #18
 Phase III of PECS:
a. Requires two trainers to avoid prompt
dependency
b. Involves presenting blocks of ten trials
per training set to assure adequate
practice prior to working on generalization
c. Requires pre-requisite training in
matching to sample formats
d. Focuses on teaching discrimination skills

D

19

ASR #19
 Phase III of PECS:
a. Begins by presenting an array of icons that represent all preferred items
b. Begins by teaching the individual to look
inside his/her communication book
c. Begins by pairing a preferred icon with a non-preferred icon
d. Can be the starting point of PECS for
older individuals

C

20

ASR #24
 McCleery’s review of the literature
suggests:
a. Speech is supported only via delayed
prompting
b. Speech may be facilitated by tapping
pictures in Phase IV
c. PECS never improves vocalization
d. PECS is the least likely modality to
result in speech development

B

21

ASR #25
 The PECS and PRT comparison study suggests:

a. Both yield similar outcomes for speech
development
b. Both resulted in no speech gains
c. Prompting speech with PRT lead to
greater vocal gains
d. The use of pictures reduced the
likelihood of speech development

A

22

ASR #26
 Myths and misconceptions regarding
PECS:
a. Only occurs outside the field of
behavior analysis
b. Is only related to the misunderstanding
of Skinner’s analysis of verbal behavior
c. Occurs with both professional and lay
groups
d. Is readily overcome by presenting
outcome data

C

23

ASR #27
 Comparing stimulus versus topographical selection:
a. Detracts from the focus on functional
analysis of verbal behavior
b. Proves stimulus-selection is a superior
strategy
c. Proves topographical-selection is
superior
d. Draws attention to the role of the listener

A