Flashcards in 3 Veterinary Terminology: The Musculoskeletal System Deck (215):
Musculoskeletal system includes?
framework around which the body is constructed and protect and support internal organs.
also assist the body in movement because they are a point of attachment for muscles.
What is hematopoietic tissue?
tissue that comprises the inner core of bones (red bone marrow manufactures blood cells)
other parts of bone are storage areas for mineral necessary for growth, such as calcium and phosphorus.
What is a joint?
the places at which bones come together.
Several different types are found within the body
The type of joint found in any specific location is determined by?
by the need for greater or lesser flexibility of movement
What are muscles responsible for?
whether attached to bones or to internal organs and blood vessels, are responsible for movement
What is internal movement?
involves the contraction and relaxation of muscles that are part of viscera
What is external movement?
is accomplished by the contraction and relaxation of muscles that are attached to the bones
What are bones mostly comprised of?
connective tissue called OSSEOUS (bony) tissue
and a rich supply of blood vessels and nerves
Osseous tissue consists of?
a combination of osteocytes (bone cells)
dense connective tissue strands known as collagen
intercellular calcium salts
During fetal development, the bones of the fetus are composed of?
cartilaginous tissue, which resembles osseous tissue but is more flexible and less dense because of a lack of calcium salts in its intercellular spaces
As an embryo develops, what happens to the cartilaginous tissue?
the process of depositing calcium salts in the soft, cartilaginous tissue occurs and continues throughout the life of the animal
What is ossification?
The gradual replacement of cartilage and its intercellular substance by immature bone cells and calcium deposits
What are Osteoblasts?
immature osteocytes that produce the bony tissue that replaces cartilage during ossification
What are Osteoclasts?
(‐clasts means to break) are large cells that function to reabsorb, or digest, bony tissue
(also called bone phagocytes) digest bone tissue from the inner sides of bones and thus enlarge the inner bone cavity so that the bone does not become overly thick and heavy
What happens when a bone breaks?
osteoblasts lay down the mineral bone matter (calcium salts) and osteoclasts remove excess bone debris (smooth out bone)
Osteoblasts and osteoclasts work together to?
work together in all bones throughout life, tearing down and rebuilding bony tissue
This allows bone to respond to mechanical stress placed on it it and thus enables it to be a living tissue, constantly rebuilding and renewing itself
The formation of bone depends on?
depends largely on a proper supply of calcium and phosphorus to the bone tissue
These minerals must be taken into the body along with a sufficient amount of vitamin D
Why is there a need for vitamin D?
Vitamin D helps calcium to pass though the lining of the small intestine and into the bloodstream
What happens once calcium and phosphorus are in the bones?
osteoblastic activity produces an enzyme that forms calcium phosphate, a substance that give bone its characteristic hard quality It is the MAJOR calcium salt.
Not only are calcium and phosphorus part of the hard structure of bone tissue, calcium is also?
calcium also is stored elsewhere in bones, and small quantities are present in the blood
If the proper amount of calcium is lacking in the blood, what happens to the muscles?
nerve fibers are unable to transmit impulses effectively to muscles, the heart muscle becomes weak, and muscles attached to bones undergo spasms
The necessary level of calcium in the blood is maintained by the?
the parathyroid gland, which secretes a hormone that signals the release of calcium from bone storage
An excess of the hormone secreted by the parathyroid gland (caused by tumor or another pathologic process) will?
raise blood calcium at the expense of the bones, which become weakened by the loss of calcium
What is the diaphysis?
the shaft or the middle region of a long bone
What is the epiphysis?
ends of a long bone
What is the epiphyseal line or plate?
represents an area of cartilage tissue that is constantly being replaced by new bone tissue as the bone grows
also is commonly known as the growth plate.
What is responsible for the lengthening of bones during growth?
Cartilage cells at the edges of the epiphyseal plate form new bone
What happens to the growth plate (epiphyseal line) when bone has achieved its full growth?
The plate calcifies and disappears
What is the metaphysis?
is the flared portion of the bone
it lies between the epiphysis and the diaphysis
It is adjacent to the epiphysis plate.
What is the periosteum?
is a strong, fibrous, vascular membrane that covers the surface of the long bones, except at the ends of the epiphyses
It has an extensive nerve supply as well
What is articular cartilage?
covers a joint that is formed when the ends of long bones and the surface of any bone that meets another bone
Describe articular cartilage
When two bones come together to form a joint, the bones themselves do not touch precisely
the articular cartilage that caps the end of one bone comes in contact with that of the other bone
Articular cartilage is a very smooth, strong and slick tissue
What is the importance of articular cartilage?
It cushions the joint and allows it to move smoothly and efficiently
Unlike the cartilage of the epiphyseal plate, which disappears when a bone achieves its full growth, articular cartilage is present throughout life
What is Compact (cortical) bone?
is a layer of hard, dense bone that lies under the periosteum in all bones and lies chiefly around the diaphysis of long bone
What are haversian canals?
they lie within compact bone
is a system of small canals containing blood vessels that bring oxygen and nutrients to the bone and remove waste products such as carbon dioxide
What is a medullary cavity?
Compact bone is tunneled out in the central shaft of the long bones by this cavity that contains yellow bone marrow
Yellow bone marrow is composed chiefly of?
What is Cancellous bone?
also called spongy or trabecular bone
is much more porous and less dense than compact bone
What are trabeculae?
are a series of separated bony fibers that contain mineral matter and are interwoven to make up a spongy latticework
Where are trabeculae found?
found largely in the epiphyses and metaphyses of long bones and in the middle portion of most other bones of the body as well
What is contained in the spaces of cancellous bone?
red bone marrow
this consists of immature and mature blood cells in various stages of development
What are Bone processes?
are enlarged areas that extend out from bones to serve as
attachments for muscles and tendons
What is the bone head?
rounded end of a bone separated from the body of the bone by a neck
usually covered by articular cartilage
In the femur, the bone head is called the femoral head
What is the Greater trochanter?
large process of the femur for attachment of tendons and muscle
What is the lesser trochanter?
small process of the femur for attachment of tendons and muscle
What is a Tubercle?
rounded process on many bones for attachment of tendons and muscles
What is a tuberosity?
another small, rounded elevation on a bone
What is a Condyle?
rounded, knuckle‐like process at the joint; usually covered by articular cartilage
What are Cranial Bones?
bones of the skull or cranium
What do cranial bones do?
protect the brain and structures related to it, such as the sense organs
Muscles for controlling head movements and chewing motions are connected to the cranial bones
What are Sutures?
the joints where cranial bones join each other
What are Fontanelles (little fountains)?
also known as Soft Spots
are gaps of unossified tissue in the skull at birth.
The cranial bones of a new born are not completely joined
The pulse of blood vessels can be felt (palpated under the skin in those areas)
What is the Frontal bone?
forms the forehead and the roof of the bony sockets that contain the eyes
What are the Parietal bones?
the two bones (one on each side of the skull) that form the roof and upper part of the sides of the cranium
What are the Temporal bones?
the two bones that form the lower sides and base of the cranium
Each bone encloses an ear and contains a fossa for joining with the mandible (lower jaw bone)
What is the temporomandibular joint (TMJ)?
the area of connection between the temporal and mandibular bones
What is the mastoid process?
a round (mast/o means breast) process of the temporal bone behind the ear
What is a styloid process?
(styl/o means pole or stake) projects downward from the temporal bone
What is the Occipital bone?
forms the back and base of the skull and joins the parietal and temporal bones, forming a suture
What is the foramen magnum?
an opening in the inferior portion of the occipital bone through which the spinal cord passes
What is the Sphenoid bone?
the bat shaped bone that extends behind the eyes and forms part of the base of the skull
it joins with the frontal, occipital, and ethmoid bones and serves as an anchor to hold those skull bones together (sphen/o means wedge)
What is the Ethmoid bone?
the thin, delicate bone that supports the nasal cavity and forms part of the orbits of the eyes
It is composed primarily of sponging, cancellous bone, which contains numerous small holes (ethm/o means sieve)
The Vertebral Column (or spinal column) is composed of?
is composed of vertebrae that are arranged in five divisions from the base of the skull to the tailbone
What are the five devisions of the spinal column?
What are intervertebral disks (discs)?
pads of cartilage that separate the vertebral bones
lies between the body of one vertebra and the bodies of the vertebrae lying beneath and above the other
provides flexibility and shocks to the vertebral column
What is the vertebral body?
the inner, thick, round anterior portion that comprises a vertebra
What is a spinous process?
a single process on the posterior portion of a vertebra
What is a transverse process?
a process on both sides of the spinous process, and a bar like lamina on either side
What is the neural canal?
the space between the vertebral body and the vertebral arch through which the spinal cord passes
Name the Bones of the Thorax
What is the Scapula?
What is the Sternum?
What is the Xiphoid?
the lower portion of the sternum
(xiph/o means sword)
What is the Manubrium?
the upper portion of the sternum
(from the Latin term meaning handle)
Name the bones of the arm and hand
What is the Humerus?
the upper arm bone
What is the Ulna?
medial lower arm bone
What is the Olecranon?
the proximal bony process of the ulna at the elbow
What is the Radius?
lateral lower arm bone
What are the Carpals?
What are the Metacarpals?
the five radiating bones in the fingers
What are the Phalanges?
each finger (except thumb) has three phalanges: a proximal, middle and a distal phalanx
Name the bones of the Pelvis
What is the Ilium?
uppermost portion of the pelvis
Dorsally the two parts of the ilium do not meet. Rather, they join the sacrum on either side to form the SACROILIAC JOINTS
What is the Ischium?
posterior part of the pelvis
What is the Pubis?
anterior part of the pelvis
Name the bones of the leg and foot
Phalanges of the toes
What is the Femur?
at its proximal end it has a rounded head that fits into a depression, or socket, in the pelvis = Acetabulum
What is the Patella?
What is the Tibia?
larger of two bones of the lower leg
What is the Fibula?
smaller of two lower leg bones
What are the Tarsals?
bones of the hind part of the foot
What are the Metatarsals?
bones of the midfoot
What are the Phalanges of the toes?
bones of the forefoot
Rounded depression, or socket, in the pelvis, which joins the femur, forming the hip joint
Outward extension of the shoulder blade forming the point of the shoulder
Thin layer of cartilage surrounding the bone in the joint space
Spongy, porous, bone tissue in the inner part of a bone
Flexible, rubbery connective tissue
Dense, connective tissue protein strands found in bone and other tissues
Knuckle like process at the end of a bone near the joint
Shaft or mid‐portion of a long bone
flat, round, plate‐like structure
Cartilaginous area at the ends of long bones where lengthwise growth takes place in the immature skeleton
Each end of a long bone
Opening or passage in bones where blood vessels and nerves enter and leave.
the opening of the occipital bone through which the spinal cord passes
Shallow cavity in a bone
minute spaces filled with blood vessels
found in compact bone
Round process on both sides of the ankle joint
Upper portion of the sternum
Rund projection on the temporal bone behind the ear
Central, hollowed‐out area in the shaft of a long bone
Flared portion of a long bone, between the diaphysis (shaft) and the epiphyseal plate
Large process on the proximal end of the ulna
Process of bone formation
Bone cell that helps form bony tissue
Bone cell that absorbs and removes unwanted bony tissue
Membrane surrounding bones; rich in blood vessels and nerve tissue
Hollow air cavity within a bone
Pole‐like process extending downward from the temporal bone on each side of the skull
Supporting bundles of bony fibers in cancellous (spongy) bone
large process at the neck of the femur
Rounded, small process on bone; attachment site for muscles and tendons
Rounded process on bone
attachment site for muscles and tendons
Lower, narrow portion of the sternum
Lamina (part of vertebral arch)
Ex: Orthopedics (ped/o means child)
Embryonic or immature cell
What is a joint?
A joint (articulation) is a coming together of two or more bones.
Joints can be?
Immovable (suture joints between skull bones)
Partially moveable (those between the vertebrae)
But most allow considerable movement
What are synovial joints?
freely movable joints
Examples of synovial joins
the ball‐and‐socket type (hip and shoulder)
the hinge type (elbow, knee and ankle)
The bones in synovial joints are surrounded by?
a joint capsule composed of fibrous tissue
What are Ligaments?
thickened fibrous band of connective tissue
anchor one bone to another and thereby add considerable strength to the joint capsule in critical areas
What is the synovial membrane?
lies under the joint capsule and lines the synovial cavity between the bones
The synovial cavity is filled with?
a special lubricating fluid produced by the synovial membrane
This synovial fluid contains?
water and nutrients that nourish as well as lubricate the joints so that friction on the articular cartilage is minimal
What are Bursae (singular: bursa)?
are closed sacs of synovial fluid lined with a synovial membrane and are located near but not with a joint
Brusae are present where?
wherever two types of tissue are closely opposed and need to slide past one another with as little friction as possible
Bursae serve as?
layers of lubrication between tissue
Common sites of bursae are?
between tendons (connective tissue binding bone to bone) and bones
and between skin and bones (in areas where bony anatomy is prominent.)
Bursa (plural; bursae)
Sac of fluid near a joint
promotes smooth sliding of one tissue against another
Connective tissue binding bones to other bones
supports, strengthens, and stabilizes the joint
Space between bones at a synovial joint
contains synovial fluid produced by the synovial membrane
Viscous (sticky) fluid within the synovial cavity.
Synovial fluid is similar in viscosity to egg white; this accounts for the origin of the term (syn‐mean like, ov/o means egg)
A freely moveable joint
Membrane lining the synovial cavity
it produces synovial fluid
Connective tissue that binds muscles to bones
Ex: Articular cartilage
To bind, tie together
Ex: Spinal stenosis
What are the three types of muscle?
Striated muscle (skeletal)
Striated muscle makes up the?
voluntary or skeletal muscles that move all bones, as well as controlling facial expression and eye movements
Through the central and peripheral nervous system, we have conscious control over these muscles
Describe Striated muscle fibers (cells)
have a pattern of dark and light bands, or fibrils, in their cytoplasm
What is fascia?
Fibrous tissue that envelops and separates muscles
which contains the muscle’s blood, lymph and nerve supply
Smooth muscle makes up the?
involuntary or visceral muscles that move internal organs such as the digestive tract, blood vessels and secretory ducts leading from glands
Smooth muscles are controlled by the?
the autonomic nervous system
Why is smooth muscle called SMOOTH?
because they have no dark and light fibrils in their cytoplasm
Skeletal muscle fibers are arranged in?
Smooth muscle forms?
sheets of fibers as it wraps around tubes and vessels
Describe Cardiac muscle
striated in appearance but is like smooth muscle in its action
Describe Cardiac muscle movement
cannot be consciously controlled
The fibers of cardiac muscle are?
branching fibers and are found in the heart
Skeletal muscles are the muscles that move what?
What happens when a muscle contracts?
one of the bones to which it is joined remains virtually stationary as a result of other muscles that hold it in place
What is the origin (beginning) of the muscle?
The point of attachment of the muscle to the stationary bone
What is the insertion of the muscle?
The point of junction of the muscle to the bone that moves
When the muscle contracts, however, another bone to which it is attached does move
The origin of a muscle lies?
proximal in the skeleton
The insertion of muscle lies?
distal in the skeleton
decreasing the angle between two bones; bending a limb
increasing the angle between two bones; straightening out a limb
movement away from the midline of the body
movement toward the midline of the body
circular movement around an axis (central point)
Internal rotation is toward the midline and external rotation is away from the midline
decreasing the angle of the joint so that the foot bends backward (upward)
motion that extends the foot downward toward the ground
fibrous membrane separating and enveloping muscles
Insertion of a muscle
connection of the muscle to a bone that moves
Origin of a muscle
connection of a muscle to a staionary bone
Fibrous connective tissue
Smooth (visceral) muscle that lines the walls of internal organs
Sole of the foot
Ex: Plantar flexion
Skeletal (striated) muscle connected to bones
Lack of strength
Ex: Myasthenia gravis
Ex: Atrophy Hypertrophy