3 Veterinary Terminology: The Musculoskeletal System Flashcards Preview

Vet Prep > 3 Veterinary Terminology: The Musculoskeletal System > Flashcards

Flashcards in 3 Veterinary Terminology: The Musculoskeletal System Deck (215):
0

Musculoskeletal system includes?

bones
muscles
joints

1

Bones provide?

framework around which the body is constructed and protect and support internal organs.
also assist the body in movement because they are a point of attachment for muscles.

2

What is hematopoietic tissue?

tissue that comprises the inner core of bones (red bone marrow manufactures blood cells)

other parts of bone are storage areas for mineral necessary for growth, such as calcium and phosphorus.

3

What is a joint?

the places at which bones come together.
Several different types are found within the body

4

The type of joint found in any specific location is determined by?

by the need for greater or lesser flexibility of movement

5

What are muscles responsible for?

whether attached to bones or to internal organs and blood vessels, are responsible for movement

6

What is internal movement?

involves the contraction and relaxation of muscles that are part of viscera

7

What is external movement?

is accomplished by the contraction and relaxation of muscles that are attached to the bones

8

What are bones mostly comprised of?

connective tissue called OSSEOUS (bony) tissue
and a rich supply of blood vessels and nerves

9

Osseous tissue consists of?

a combination of osteocytes (bone cells)
dense connective tissue strands known as collagen
intercellular calcium salts

10

During fetal development, the bones of the fetus are composed of?

cartilaginous tissue, which resembles osseous tissue but is more flexible and less dense because of a lack of calcium salts in its intercellular spaces

11

As an embryo develops, what happens to the cartilaginous tissue?

the process of depositing calcium salts in the soft, cartilaginous tissue occurs and continues throughout the life of the animal

12

What is ossification?

Bone Formation
The gradual replacement of cartilage and its intercellular substance by immature bone cells and calcium deposits

13

What are Osteoblasts?

immature osteocytes that produce the bony tissue that replaces cartilage during ossification

14

What are Osteoclasts?

(‐clasts means to break) are large cells that function to reabsorb, or digest, bony tissue
(also called bone phagocytes) digest bone tissue from the inner sides of bones and thus enlarge the inner bone cavity so that the bone does not become overly thick and heavy

15

What happens when a bone breaks?

osteoblasts lay down the mineral bone matter (calcium salts) and osteoclasts remove excess bone debris (smooth out bone)

16

Osteoblasts and osteoclasts work together to?

work together in all bones throughout life, tearing down and rebuilding bony tissue
This allows bone to respond to mechanical stress placed on it it and thus enables it to be a living tissue, constantly rebuilding and renewing itself

17

The formation of bone depends on?

depends largely on a proper supply of calcium and phosphorus to the bone tissue
These minerals must be taken into the body along with a sufficient amount of vitamin D

18

Why is there a need for vitamin D?

Vitamin D helps calcium to pass though the lining of the small intestine and into the bloodstream

19

What happens once calcium and phosphorus are in the bones?

osteoblastic activity produces an enzyme that forms calcium phosphate, a substance that give bone its characteristic hard quality It is the MAJOR calcium salt.

20

Not only are calcium and phosphorus part of the hard structure of bone tissue, calcium is also?

calcium also is stored elsewhere in bones, and small quantities are present in the blood

21

If the proper amount of calcium is lacking in the blood, what happens to the muscles?

nerve fibers are unable to transmit impulses effectively to muscles, the heart muscle becomes weak, and muscles attached to bones undergo spasms

22

The necessary level of calcium in the blood is maintained by the?

the parathyroid gland, which secretes a hormone that signals the release of calcium from bone storage

23

An excess of the hormone secreted by the parathyroid gland (caused by tumor or another pathologic process) will?

raise blood calcium at the expense of the bones, which become weakened by the loss of calcium

24

What is the diaphysis?

the shaft or the middle region of a long bone

25

What is the epiphysis?

ends of a long bone

26

What is the epiphyseal line or plate?

represents an area of cartilage tissue that is constantly being replaced by new bone tissue as the bone grows
also is commonly known as the growth plate.

27

What is responsible for the lengthening of bones during growth?

Cartilage cells at the edges of the epiphyseal plate form new bone

28

What happens to the growth plate (epiphyseal line) when bone has achieved its full growth?

The plate calcifies and disappears

29

What is the metaphysis?

is the flared portion of the bone
it lies between the epiphysis and the diaphysis
It is adjacent to the epiphysis plate.

30

What is the periosteum?

is a strong, fibrous, vascular membrane that covers the surface of the long bones, except at the ends of the epiphyses
It has an extensive nerve supply as well

31

What is articular cartilage?

covers a joint that is formed when the ends of long bones and the surface of any bone that meets another bone

32

Describe articular cartilage

When two bones come together to form a joint, the bones themselves do not touch precisely
the articular cartilage that caps the end of one bone comes in contact with that of the other bone
Articular cartilage is a very smooth, strong and slick tissue

33

What is the importance of articular cartilage?

It cushions the joint and allows it to move smoothly and efficiently
Unlike the cartilage of the epiphyseal plate, which disappears when a bone achieves its full growth, articular cartilage is present throughout life

34

What is Compact (cortical) bone?

is a layer of hard, dense bone that lies under the periosteum in all bones and lies chiefly around the diaphysis of long bone

35

What are haversian canals?

they lie within compact bone
is a system of small canals containing blood vessels that bring oxygen and nutrients to the bone and remove waste products such as carbon dioxide

36

What is a medullary cavity?

Compact bone is tunneled out in the central shaft of the long bones by this cavity that contains yellow bone marrow

37

Yellow bone marrow is composed chiefly of?

fat cells

38

What is Cancellous bone?

also called spongy or trabecular bone
is much more porous and less dense than compact bone

39

What are trabeculae?

are a series of separated bony fibers that contain mineral matter and are interwoven to make up a spongy latticework

40

Where are trabeculae found?

found largely in the epiphyses and metaphyses of long bones and in the middle portion of most other bones of the body as well

41

What is contained in the spaces of cancellous bone?

red bone marrow
this consists of immature and mature blood cells in various stages of development

42

What are Bone processes?

are enlarged areas that extend out from bones to serve as
attachments for muscles and tendons

43

What is the bone head?

rounded end of a bone separated from the body of the bone by a neck
usually covered by articular cartilage
In the femur, the bone head is called the femoral head

44

What is the Greater trochanter?

large process of the femur for attachment of tendons and muscle

45

What is the lesser trochanter?

small process of the femur for attachment of tendons and muscle

46

What is a Tubercle?

rounded process on many bones for attachment of tendons and muscles

47

What is a tuberosity?

another small, rounded elevation on a bone

48

What is a Condyle?

rounded, knuckle‐like process at the joint; usually covered by articular cartilage

49

What are Cranial Bones?

bones of the skull or cranium

50

What do cranial bones do?

protect the brain and structures related to it, such as the sense organs
Muscles for controlling head movements and chewing motions are connected to the cranial bones

51

What are Sutures?

the joints where cranial bones join each other

52

What are Fontanelles (little fountains)?

also known as Soft Spots
are gaps of unossified tissue in the skull at birth.
The cranial bones of a new born are not completely joined
The pulse of blood vessels can be felt (palpated under the skin in those areas)

53

What is the Frontal bone?

forms the forehead and the roof of the bony sockets that contain the eyes

54

What are the Parietal bones?

the two bones (one on each side of the skull) that form the roof and upper part of the sides of the cranium

55

What are the Temporal bones?

the two bones that form the lower sides and base of the cranium
Each bone encloses an ear and contains a fossa for joining with the mandible (lower jaw bone)

56

What is the temporomandibular joint (TMJ)?

the area of connection between the temporal and mandibular bones

57

What is the mastoid process?

a round (mast/o means breast) process of the temporal bone behind the ear

58

What is a styloid process?

(styl/o means pole or stake) projects downward from the temporal bone

59

What is the Occipital bone?

forms the back and base of the skull and joins the parietal and temporal bones, forming a suture

60

What is the foramen magnum?

an opening in the inferior portion of the occipital bone through which the spinal cord passes

61

What is the Sphenoid bone?

the bat shaped bone that extends behind the eyes and forms part of the base of the skull
it joins with the frontal, occipital, and ethmoid bones and serves as an anchor to hold those skull bones together (sphen/o means wedge)

62

What is the Ethmoid bone?

the thin, delicate bone that supports the nasal cavity and forms part of the orbits of the eyes
It is composed primarily of sponging, cancellous bone, which contains numerous small holes (ethm/o means sieve)

63

The Vertebral Column (or spinal column) is composed of?

is composed of vertebrae that are arranged in five divisions from the base of the skull to the tailbone

64

What are the five devisions of the spinal column?

cervical
thoracic
lumbar
sacral
coccygea

65

What are intervertebral disks (discs)?

pads of cartilage that separate the vertebral bones
lies between the body of one vertebra and the bodies of the vertebrae lying beneath and above the other
provides flexibility and shocks to the vertebral column

66

What is the vertebral body?

the inner, thick, round anterior portion that comprises a vertebra

67

What is a spinous process?

a single process on the posterior portion of a vertebra

68

What is a transverse process?

a process on both sides of the spinous process, and a bar like lamina on either side

69

What is the neural canal?

the space between the vertebral body and the vertebral arch through which the spinal cord passes

70

Name the Bones of the Thorax

Scapula
Sternum

71

What is the Scapula?

Shoulder blade

72

What is the Sternum?

breast bone

73

What is the Xiphoid?

the lower portion of the sternum
(xiph/o means sword)

74

What is the Manubrium?

the upper portion of the sternum
(from the Latin term meaning handle)

75

Name the bones of the arm and hand

Humerus
Ulna
Radius
Carpals
Metacarpals
Phalanges

76

What is the Humerus?

the upper arm bone

77

What is the Ulna?

medial lower arm bone

78

What is the Olecranon?

the proximal bony process of the ulna at the elbow

79

What is the Radius?

lateral lower arm bone

80

What are the Carpals?

wrist bones

81

What are the Metacarpals?

the five radiating bones in the fingers

82

What are the Phalanges?

finger bones
each finger (except thumb) has three phalanges: a proximal, middle and a distal phalanx

83

Name the bones of the Pelvis

Ilium
Ischium
Pubis

84

What is the Ilium?

uppermost portion of the pelvis
Dorsally the two parts of the ilium do not meet. Rather, they join the sacrum on either side to form the SACROILIAC JOINTS

85

What is the Ischium?

posterior part of the pelvis

86

What is the Pubis?

anterior part of the pelvis

87

Name the bones of the leg and foot

Femur
Patella
Tibia
Fibula
Tarsals
Metatarsals
Phalanges of the toes

88

What is the Femur?

Thigh bone
at its proximal end it has a rounded head that fits into a depression, or socket, in the pelvis = Acetabulum

89

What is the Patella?

kneecap

90

What is the Tibia?

larger of two bones of the lower leg

91

What is the Fibula?

smaller of two lower leg bones

92

What are the Tarsals?

bones of the hind part of the foot

93

What are the Metatarsals?

bones of the midfoot

94

What are the Phalanges of the toes?

bones of the forefoot

95

Acetabulum

Rounded depression, or socket, in the pelvis, which joins the femur, forming the hip joint

96

Acromion

Outward extension of the shoulder blade forming the point of the shoulder

97

Articular Cartilage

Thin layer of cartilage surrounding the bone in the joint space

98

Cancellous Bone

Spongy, porous, bone tissue in the inner part of a bone

99

Cartilaginous Tissue

Flexible, rubbery connective tissue

100

Collagen

Dense, connective tissue protein strands found in bone and other tissues

101

Condyle

Knuckle like process at the end of a bone near the joint

102

Cranial Bones

Skull bones
Ethmoid
frontal
occipital
parietal
sphenoid
temporal

103

Diaphysis

Shaft or mid‐portion of a long bone

104

Disk (disc)

flat, round, plate‐like structure

105

Epiphyseal Plate

Cartilaginous area at the ends of long bones where lengthwise growth takes place in the immature skeleton

106

Epiphysis

Each end of a long bone

107

Foramen

Opening or passage in bones where blood vessels and nerves enter and leave.

108

Foramen Magnum

the opening of the occipital bone through which the spinal cord passes

109

Fossa

Shallow cavity in a bone

110

Haversian Canals

minute spaces filled with blood vessels
found in compact bone

111

Malleolus

Round process on both sides of the ankle joint

112

Manubrium

Upper portion of the sternum

113

Mastoid Process

Rund projection on the temporal bone behind the ear

114

Medullary Cavity

Central, hollowed‐out area in the shaft of a long bone

115

Metaphysis

Flared portion of a long bone, between the diaphysis (shaft) and the epiphyseal plate

116

Olecranon

Large process on the proximal end of the ulna

117

Osseous Tissue

Bone tissue

118

Ossification

Process of bone formation

119

Osteoblast

Bone cell that helps form bony tissue

120

Osteoclast

Bone cell that absorbs and removes unwanted bony tissue

121

Periosteum

Membrane surrounding bones; rich in blood vessels and nerve tissue

122

Sinus

Hollow air cavity within a bone

123

Styloid Process

Pole‐like process extending downward from the temporal bone on each side of the skull

124

Trabeculae

Supporting bundles of bony fibers in cancellous (spongy) bone

125

Trochanter

large process at the neck of the femur

126

Tubercle

Rounded, small process on bone; attachment site for muscles and tendons

127

Tuberosity

Rounded process on bone
attachment site for muscles and tendons

128

Xiphoid Process

Lower, narrow portion of the sternum

129

Calc/o, calci/o

calcium
Ex: Hypercalcemia

130

Lamin/o

Lamina (part of vertebral arch)
Ex: Laminectomy

131

Lumb/o

Lower back
Ex: Lumbar

132

Myel/o

Bone marrow
Ex: Myelopoiesis

133

Orth/o

Straight
Ex: Orthopedics (ped/o means child)

134

Oste/o

Bone
Ex: Osteitis

135

Spondyl/o

Vertebra
Ex: Spondylosis

136

Vertebro/o

Vertebra
Ex: Vertebral

137

‐blast

Embryonic or immature cell
Ex: Osteoblast

138

‐clast

To break
Ex: Osteoclast

139

‐malacia

Softening
Ex: Osteomalacia

140

‐porosis

Por, passes
Ex: Osteoporosis

141

What is a joint?

A joint (articulation) is a coming together of two or more bones.

142

Joints can be?

Immovable (suture joints between skull bones)
Partially moveable (those between the vertebrae)
But most allow considerable movement

143

What are synovial joints?

freely movable joints

144

Examples of synovial joins

the ball‐and‐socket type (hip and shoulder)
the hinge type (elbow, knee and ankle)

145

The bones in synovial joints are surrounded by?

a joint capsule composed of fibrous tissue

146

What are Ligaments?

thickened fibrous band of connective tissue
anchor one bone to another and thereby add considerable strength to the joint capsule in critical areas

147

What is the synovial membrane?

lies under the joint capsule and lines the synovial cavity between the bones

148

The synovial cavity is filled with?

Synovial fluid
a special lubricating fluid produced by the synovial membrane

149

This synovial fluid contains?

water and nutrients that nourish as well as lubricate the joints so that friction on the articular cartilage is minimal

150

What are Bursae (singular: bursa)?

are closed sacs of synovial fluid lined with a synovial membrane and are located near but not with a joint

151

Brusae are present where?

wherever two types of tissue are closely opposed and need to slide past one another with as little friction as possible

152

Bursae serve as?

layers of lubrication between tissue

153

Common sites of bursae are?

between tendons (connective tissue binding bone to bone) and bones
and between skin and bones (in areas where bony anatomy is prominent.)

154

Bursa (plural; bursae)

Sac of fluid near a joint
promotes smooth sliding of one tissue against another

155

Articulation

Any joint

156

Ligament

Connective tissue binding bones to other bones
supports, strengthens, and stabilizes the joint

157

Synovial cavity

Space between bones at a synovial joint
contains synovial fluid produced by the synovial membrane

158

Synovial fluid

Viscous (sticky) fluid within the synovial cavity.
Synovial fluid is similar in viscosity to egg white; this accounts for the origin of the term (syn‐mean like, ov/o means egg)

159

Synovial joint

A freely moveable joint

160

Synovial membrane

Membrane lining the synovial cavity
it produces synovial fluid

161

Tendon

Connective tissue that binds muscles to bones

162

Ankyl/o

Stiff
Ex: Ankylosis

163

Arthr/o

Joint
Ex: Arthrotomy

164

Articul/o

Joint
Ex: Articular cartilage

165

Burs/o

Bursa
Ex: Bursitis

166

Chondr/o

Cartilage
Ex: Chondroma

167

Synov/o

Synovial membrane
Ex: Synovitis

168

Ten/o

Tendon
Ex: Tenorrhaphy

169

Tendin/o

Tendon
Ex: Tendinitis

170

‐desis

To bind, tie together
Ex: Arthrodesis

171

‐stenosis

Narrowing
Ex: Spinal stenosis

172

What are the three types of muscle?

Striated muscle (skeletal)
Smooth muscle
Cardiac muscle

173

Striated muscle makes up the?

voluntary or skeletal muscles that move all bones, as well as controlling facial expression and eye movements

174

Through the central and peripheral nervous system, we have conscious control over these muscles

.

175

Describe Striated muscle fibers (cells)

have a pattern of dark and light bands, or fibrils, in their cytoplasm

176

What is fascia?

Fibrous tissue that envelops and separates muscles
which contains the muscle’s blood, lymph and nerve supply

177

Smooth muscle makes up the?

involuntary or visceral muscles that move internal organs such as the digestive tract, blood vessels and secretory ducts leading from glands

178

Smooth muscles are controlled by the?

the autonomic nervous system

179

Why is smooth muscle called SMOOTH?

because they have no dark and light fibrils in their cytoplasm

180

Skeletal muscle fibers are arranged in?

bundles

181

Smooth muscle forms?

sheets of fibers as it wraps around tubes and vessels

182

Describe Cardiac muscle

striated in appearance but is like smooth muscle in its action

183

Describe Cardiac muscle movement

cannot be consciously controlled

184

The fibers of cardiac muscle are?

branching fibers and are found in the heart

185

Skeletal muscles are the muscles that move what?

bones

186

What happens when a muscle contracts?

one of the bones to which it is joined remains virtually stationary as a result of other muscles that hold it in place

187

What is the origin (beginning) of the muscle?

The point of attachment of the muscle to the stationary bone

188

What is the insertion of the muscle?

The point of junction of the muscle to the bone that moves

189

When the muscle contracts, however, another bone to which it is attached does move

.

190

The origin of a muscle lies?

proximal in the skeleton

191

The insertion of muscle lies?

distal in the skeleton

192

Flexion

decreasing the angle between two bones; bending a limb

193

Extension

increasing the angle between two bones; straightening out a limb

194

Abduction

movement away from the midline of the body

195

Adduction

movement toward the midline of the body

196

Rotation

circular movement around an axis (central point)
Internal rotation is toward the midline and external rotation is away from the midline

197

Dorsiflexion

decreasing the angle of the joint so that the foot bends backward (upward)

198

Plantar flexion

motion that extends the foot downward toward the ground

199

Fascia

fibrous membrane separating and enveloping muscles

200

Insertion of a muscle

connection of the muscle to a bone that moves

201

Origin of a muscle

connection of a muscle to a staionary bone

202

Visceral muscle

smooth muscle

203

Fibr/o

Fibrous connective tissue
Ex: Fibromyalgia

204

Leiomy/o

Smooth (visceral) muscle that lines the walls of internal organs
Ex: Leiomyoma

205

My/o

Muscle
Ex: Myopathy

206

Myocardi/o

Heart muscle
Ex: Myocardial

207

Myos/o

Muscle
Ex: Myositis

208

Plant/o

Sole of the foot
Ex: Plantar flexion

209

Rhabdomy/o

Skeletal (striated) muscle connected to bones
Ex: Rhabdomyolysis

210

‐asthenia

Lack of strength
Ex: Myasthenia gravis

211

‐trophy

Development, nourishment
Ex: Atrophy Hypertrophy

212

Ab‐

Away from
Ex: Abduction

213

Ad‐

Toward
Ex: Adduction

214

Poly‐

Many
Ex: polymyalgia

Decks in Vet Prep Class (47):