Flashcards in 3.1.1 - Applied anatomy and physiology Deck (83)
Identify the bones located in the upper body
Head/Neck - Cranium and vertebrae
Shoulder - Scapula and humerus
Chest - Ribs and sternum
Elbow - Humerus, radius and ulna
Identify the bones located in the lower body
Hip - Pelvis and femur
Knee - Femur, tibia and patella
Ankle - Tibia, fibula and talus
Identify the three functions of the skeleton
2. Protection of vital organs by flat bones
4. Structural shape and points for attachment
5. Mineral storage
6. Blood cell production
Explain how the functions of the skeleton are applied to performance in physical activity
Support: The bones are solid and rigid. They keep us upright and hold the rest of the body - muscles and organs - in place.
Protection: Certain parts of the skeleton protect the body's organs from external forces. e.g. the brain is inside the cranium (heading a football), the ribs protect the heart and lungs. These are specifically important during contact sports such as rugby and boxing.
Movement: The skeleton helps the body move by providing anchor points for the muscles to pull against.
Structural Shape and Points of attachment: It gives us our shape and height. The points of attachment provide anchorage points for the muscles to attache, so when they contract we move.
Mineral Storage: Minerals are stored and released in the body when needed. This allows the body to maintain a stable balance of key minerals.
Blood cell production: Inner marrow of long bones produce red blood cells. Red blood cells carry oxygen around the body to working muscles. This is specifically important for aerobic athletes, such as marathon runners, team game athletes
Identify the muscles located in the upper body
Latissimus dorsi - located at the back
Deltoid - located at the shoulder
Rotator cuffs - located at the shoulder
Pectorals - located at the chest
Biceps - located at the arms
Triceps - located at the arms
Abdominals - located at the torso
Identify the 6 structures of a synovial joint
1. Synovial membrane
2. Synovial fluid
3. Joint capsule
How do the structures of a synovial joint prevent injury?
Cartilage: They cover the ends of the bones providing a smooth, friction-free surface.
Capsule that is lined with the synovial membrane and Synovial fluid: Lubricates the joint and reduces friction and wear.
Ligaments: Join bone to bone and strengthen the joint to prevent unnecessary movements and dislocations.
Bursae: Fluid filled bag that helps reduce friction in a joint.
Identify two types of freely movable joints
1. Hinge joint
2. Ball and socket joint
Where on the body are hinge joints found?
Where on the body are ball and socket joints found?
Identify the muscles located in the lower body
1. Hip flexors
3. Hamstring group
4. Quadriceps group
6. Tibialis anterior
What is the role of a ligaments?
Ligaments attach bone to bone and provide support at a joint.
What is the role of tendons?
Tendons attach muscle to bone and allow movement around a joint.
What freely movable joints does flexion/extension occur?
Flexion/extension occurs at the shoulder, elbow, hip and knee.
What freely movable joint does abduction/adduction occur?
Abduction/adduction occurs at the shoulder.
What freely movable joint does rotation occur?
Rotation occurs at the shoulder.
What freely moveable joint does plantar flexion/ dorsiflexion occur?
Plantar flexion/ dorsiflexion occurs at the ankle.
What is an agonist?
The muscle which causes the movement (prime mover).
For example when you extend your leg (knee joint), the quadriceps contract (agonist).
What is an antagonist?
The muscle that relaxes to allow the agonist to contract.
What does the term antagonistic pairs mean?
Muscles work in pairs to allow the body to move.
As one muscle contracts, the second muscle relaxes. As the second muscle contracts, the first muscle relaxes. This is known as antagonistic muscle action.
What are the different types of muscle contractions?
Isotonic: where the muscles change lengths (shorten or lengthen). Concentric (muscles shorten) and Eccentric (muscles lengthen)
Isometric: The muscle remains at the same length. For example during a scrum a prop's on the initial engage contracts his quadriceps but they do not lengthen or shorten. This would change after the initial impact though.
What is the difference between concentric and eccentric (isotonic) contractions?
Concentric: muscle shortens
Eccentric: muscle lengthens
Give three examples of an isometric muscle contraction in three different physical activities.
Athlete/swimmer on starting blocks
Weight-lifter holding finishing position
Wicket-keeper waiting for delivery of the ball.
Identify the pathway of air from the mouth to the alveoli.
Air travels through the:
Where does gaseous exchange occur?
At the alveoli in the lungs or in the working muscles
Breathing enables gaseous exchange to occur at the alveoli.
Outline how two features of the alveoli assist in gaseous exchange.
Award one mark for each of the following points up to a maximum of two marks.
• Large surface area of alveoli to allow larger volumes of gases / oxygen and carbon dioxide to move between the lungs and the bloodstream (1)
• Moist thin walls / one cell thick creating a short distance for diffusion / short diffusion pathway (1)
• Lots of capillaries around the alveoli so large area for gas exchange (1)
• Large blood supply to carry gases / oxygen and carbon dioxide (1)
• Movement of gas from high concentration to low concentration means there is a pressure gradient which allows diffusion to occur (1)
Accept any other suitable outline of how features of the alveoli assist in gaseous exchange. Answers must link the feature to how it assists in gaseous exchange.
What carries oxygen around the body?
Red blood cells (specifically haemoglobin). Haemoglobin is the oxygen carrying capacity within red blood cells.
Fact: Haemoglobin can also carry carbon dioxide.
Name the three blood vessels in the body.
Give the structures of arteries, veins and capillaries.
Arteries: Arteries are thick, muscular and have elastic walls to withstand pressure. They have a small lumen (internal diameter).
Veins: Veins have valves that stop back flow. Are not elastic (do not stretch or have a pulse). They have a thin wall, but have a large lumen (internal diameter)
Capillaries: The walls are one cell thick that allows gaseous exchange to occur. Very narrow - only one cell at a time.