Flashcards in 3.1.2 - Movement analysis Deck (38)
What are the three aspects to a lever?
- Resistance (Load)
Give the rhyme that helps to remember the placement of the linear version of a lever.
1, 2, 3, F, R, E
What is the 'fulcrum'?
The part of the lever system that pivots. Joints are the fulcrums in the body's lever systems.
What does the term 'resistance' mean?
The load to be moved vy a lever system. Usually this involves weight when the body's lever systems are involved.
What does the term 'effort' mean?
The force applied to move the resistance or weight, in the body. The effort is provided by muscles exerting a force.
Give an example of a first class lever.
The fulcrum is in between the effort and resistance. An example of a first class lever in the human body is the way the triceps muscle of the arm acts during extension. An application to a sporting situation is a throw-in during football.
Give an example of a second class lever.
The fulcrum lies at one end with the effort at the other end. The resistance lies in the middle of the effort and the fulcrum.
An example within the human body would be at the ankle joint. The fulcrum is the ball of the foot, the effort being the contraction of the gastrocnemius muscle. The resistance then would be the weight of the person.
Give an example of a third class lever.
An example of a third class lever in the human body is the biceps muscle in the arm acting on the elbow joint to move a resistance in the hand. The fulcrum is on the end (pivot), with the effort just inside which enables the ability to lift the resistance.
The movement specifically can be reffered to as a bicep curl.
What is the equation for mechanical advantage?
Mechanical Advantage = effort arm divided by the resistance arm.
What is mechanical advantage?
The beneficial to a lever system of having either a short effort arm - giving rapid movements over a large range of movement - or a short resistance arm - giving the advantage of being able to move a heavy weight.
Name the seven types of movement.
Flexion / Extension at the shoulder, eblow, hip and knee.
Adduction / Abduction at the shoulder
Rotation of the shoulder
Plantar flexion / dorsiflexion at the ankle.
Give a sporting example of extension at the knee.
Straigtening of the knee joint when kicking a football.
Give a sporting example of flexion at the knee.
Bending of the knee joint in the preparation phase of kicking a football.
Give a sporting example of extention at the elbow.
Straightening of the elbow joint when shooting in basketball.
Give a sporting example of flexion at the elbow.
Bending of the elbow joint when preparing to shoot the basketball.
Give a sporting example of flexion/extension at the hip.
During kicking a football, when the legs moves forward to kick a ball the hip flexes (angle reduces). When the leg moves further backwards behind the body, the hip extends.
Give a sporting example of when abduction of the legs would occur.
During a cartwheel in gymnastics, when the legs moves sidewards away from the midline of the body.
Give a sporting example of when rotation at the shoulder would occur.
A cricket bowler, as his shoulders moves around in a circular motion. This has a large range of movement and allows for a high level of speed to be created.
Give a sporting example of when plantar flexion would occur.
During long jump and the take-off phase, the athlete points his/her toe towards to the floor to propel themselves upwards.
Name the three planes of movement.
Name the three axes of movement.
Describe the movement that occurs in the sagittal plane, whilst providing a sporting example which demonstrates this.
Forward and backwards movements occur in the sagittal plane. An example of movement in this plane would be running.
Describe the movement that occurs in the frontal plane, whilst providing a sporting example which demonstrate this.
Side to side movements occur in the frontal plane. An example of movement in this plane would be a cartwheel.
Describe the movement that occurs in the transverse plane, whilst providing a sporting example which demonstrate this.
Rotational or turning movements occur in the transverse plane. An example of movement in this plane would be a ice skater performing a 360 degree twist/spin.
Describe the movement in which the transverse axis rotates.
The transverse axis passes through horizontally through the body from left to right. This allows for movements such as flexion and extension to occur, and rotation such as forward rolls and front somersaults.
Describe the movement in which the sagittal axis rotates.
The sagittal axis passes horizontally through the body from back to front. This allows side ways rotation, such as a cartwheel. These specific movements are abduction and adduction.
Describe the movement in which the longitudinal axis rotates.
The longitudinal axis passes vertically from the top of the body to the feet. This allows rotation to take place, specifically 360 degree twists/spin.
When a performer runs during a 100m sprint, through which plane and in what axis do their legs move?
Plane: Sagittal Plane
Axis: Transverse Axis
When a hammer thrower performs their throw, in which plane and in what axis does their movement occur?
Plane: Transverse Plane
Axis: Longitudinal Axis
As part of a training programme a performer completes star jumps. In which plane and in what axis are these movements performed?
Plane: Frontal Plane
Axis: Sagittal Axis
During shoulder flexion, which muscle is the agonist (causes the movement) and what is the antagonist?
Antagonist: Latissimus dorsi
During shoulder extension, which muscle is the agonist and what is the antagonist?
Agonist: Latissimus dorsi
Name the movement caused by the triceps at the elbow.
The movement extension is caused by the triceps.
What is the agonist and antagonist of a footballer when they extend their knee joint to kick a football.
What type of muscle contraction is occuring during the downward phase of a push-up? Name the main agonist.
Eccentric muscle contraction (muscle lengthens), part of isotonic muscular contractions
Triceps muscle group
What muscles are the agonist (cause movement) and antagonist (relax) when flexing your hip?
Agonist: Hip flexors
What muscles are the agonist and antagonist when plantar flexing your ankle?
Plantar flexion: Pointing your toes down to the ground
Antagonist: Tibialis anterior