Flashcards in 3.1.3 - Physical training Deck (90)
What is 'health'?
A state of complete emotional, physical, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.
What does the term 'fitness' mean?
The ability to meet/cope with the demands of the environment.
Explain the relationship between health and fitness.
Can be summarised by any of the points below:
- Ill health can negatively affect fitness as the individual may be too unwell to train - thus lowering their fitness.
- Ill health may not affect fitness if the person is still well enough to train.
- Increases in fitness can positively affect health and well-being, e.g. you may feel content/happy within yourself and you may have enhanced your social well-being through taking part in activities.
- However, increased fitness cannot prevent you from contracting some illnesses and diseases and subsequently your health may suffer. (Over training can in fact lower your immune system and make you more susceptible to illness and disease!)
What does the term 'agility' mean?
The ability to move and change direction quickly (at speed) whilst maintaining control.
What does the term 'balance' mean?
The ability to keep your body steady both when in a static position and when moving.
The maintenance of the centre of mass over the base of support, helps to keep the body stable.
What does the term 'cardiovascular endurance' mean?
The ability of how efficiently your body can deliver oxygen and nutrients, such as glucose, to your working muscles duing exercise.
Additionally, it is the ability to carry waste products away, such as carbon dioxide and lactic acid.
What does the term 'coordination' mean?
The ability to use different (two or more) parts of the body together smoothly and efficiently.
What does the term 'flexibility' mean?
The range of movement possible at a joint.
What does the term 'muscular endurance' mean?
The ability of a muscle or muscle group to undergo repeated contractions, avoiding fatigue. The repeated contractions cause a limb to carry out repeated movement.
The ability of a muscle/ muscle group to move a limb repeatedly is needed for activities such as middle-distance running, rowing or swimming.
What does the term 'power' mean?
Power, also known as explosive strength or anaerobic power is the product of strength and speed, i.e. strength x speed.
What does the term 'reaction time' mean?
Reaction time is the time taken to initate a response to a stimulus.
What does the term 'strength'?
Strength is the ability amount of force a muscle can generate when it contracts to overcome a resistance
What does the term 'speed' mean?
Speed is the maximum rate at which an individual is able to perform a movement or cover a distance in a period of time.
It is also defined as 'putting the body parts through actions as quickly as possible'.
Speed can be calculated as 'distance divided by time'.
What does the term 'body composition' mean?
Is the measure of the percentage of fat, muscle, bone, water and vital organs that make up your body weight.
Describe the '12-minute coopers test' protocol.
Warm up for 10 minutes prior to the test
- When the command 'Go' is given, the assistant starts the stop watch and the performer runs or swims for 12 minutes. The distance ideally should be a 400m square.
- You should be informed how much time is to go after every lap.
- At the end of the 12 minutes, your assistant should shout stop, and you measure the distance covered during this time to the nearest 10 metres.
Can you provide reasons/ justifications why agility is needed by different sports performers?
Answers should provide a reasoned conclusion which links the ability to change direction at speed to the demands of the sports chosen, for example in football where players need to out man-oeuvre opponents, or tennis, where players may need agility to react to their opponent's shot.
Name two different types of balance.
Two types of balance: Static and dynamic (moving).
Explain why balance is needed for certain sporting activities.
Balance is the maintainence of centre of mass over the base of support. For example, in rugby when making a tackle the defender needs a stable base.
Suggest reasons why cardiovascular endurance is needed by performers in different sports.
Cardiovascular is the ability of the heart and lungs to supply oxygen to the working muscles. Therefore, it is important to maintain a good level of cardiovascular endurance so you can run for long periods of time.
Suggest reasons why co-ordination is needed by performers in different sports.
Co-ordination is the abiliy to use two or more body parts together smoothly and efficiently. Therefore when playing a badminton net shot, the player gets into the right position and coordinates their arms to hit the shuttle.
Suggest reasons why flexibility is needed by performers in different sports.
Flexibility is the range of movement possible at a joint. Therefore to be successful the performers good flexibility for the range of movement occuring at the movement (hip and knee: flexion / extension when kicking a football)
Suggest reasons why muscular endurance is needed by performers in different sports.
Muscular endurance is the ability of a muscle or group of muscles to undergo repeated contractions avoiding fatigue. Therefore by having a the ability to contract your muscles for a long period of time, you are going to fatigue at a slower rate in comparison to others.
Suggest reasons why power is needed by performers in different sports.
Power is strength x speed. Therefore by having good power a 100m sprinter can accelerate at the start of their sprint to get ahead of the other sprinters.
Suggest reasons why speed is needed by performers in different sports.
Speed is the maximum rate at which an individual is able to perform a movement or cover a distance. By having good speed the performer is able sprint ahead of the other athletes, or run through gaps in the oppositions defensive line in rugby.
Suggest reasons why strength is needed by performers in different sports.
Strength is the ability to overcome a resistance. Therefore you require strength to be able to out muscle the opposition, for example - when making a tackle in rugby or during the scrum.
Identify three reasons why fitness tests are carried out.
1. To identify strengths and/or weaknesses in a performance.
2. To inform training requirements.
3. To show a starting level of fitness.
4. To monitor improvement.
5. To gauge the success of a training programme.
6. To compare against norms of the group / national averages.
7. To motivate/set goals.
8. To provide variety in a training programme.
What fitness test would be used to measure 'agility'?
The 'Illinois agility test'
Describe the 'Illinois agility test' protocol.
The illinois agility test requires 8 cones, a measuring tape and a stopwatch. The cones should be arranged in a 10 m x 5 m rectangle with 4 cones down the middle. The performers starts face down on the floor, then the performer sprints forward around the left edge cone runs back and slaloms in and out up and back of the middle cones, then sprints up to the right edge cone to then sprint down to the finish line.
The test is measured in seconds and invovles the participant to run/sprint maximally as fast as possible.
What fitness test would be used to measure 'balance'?
The 'stork balance' test