What are the five social groups that can impact participation?
- Gender - Race/Religion/Culture - Age - Family/Friends/Peers -Disability
What percentage of disabled people participate regularly in physical activity and sport?
What percentage of adults from black and ethnic minority groups participate regularly in physical activity and sport?
What percentage from the lowest socio-economic groups participate regularly in physical activity and sport?
What are the participation level difference between males and females?
Males participation level is 41% Females' participation level is 31%
How might the social group (family) discourage participation in a physical activity?
- They may not provide encouragement - They may have safety concerns or lack of interest in the specific sport. - May provide pressure early on in life to focus on academic work rather than physical activity. - Cannot supply the financial support (low socio-economic group) in the form of equipment, kit, coaching and transport.
How might the social group (gender) discourage participation in a physical activity?
- Lack of facilities aimed at women - Lack of female teams. - Lack of female coaches. - Barriers created by incorrect stereotyping (e.g. a women's role is at home).
How might the social group (Ethnicity/Culture/Religion) discourage participation in a physical activity?
- Dress codes - may limit participation in certain sports, as parts of the body may need to be kept covered. This could result in embarrassment or low self-esteem. - Single sex rules (e.g. muslim) - prevent women from participating in mixed sex, as women's role may be perceived as in the home in certain cultures. - Due to cultural or religious beliefs, some people may be (stereotypically) drawn towards certain activities.
Why are more females taking part in sport and physical activity now than in the past? (4 marks)
There are lots of reasons: - More sports available to females - More competitions/events/leagues available to females. - More coaches available to females. - More role model - More opportunities at school - Changes to lifestyle. - More encouragement available to females. - More times to play due to female/male role changes/traditions. - Changes in attitudes towards females participation / equality for women. - Female sport well publicised/ campaigns promoted. - Women's only sessions in clubs/centres. - Changing attitudes/ambitions amongst women. - Increased chance of sponsorship for elite women athletes / earning money. - More female sports coverage on TV / media. - More childcare available.
What factors could influence/discourage participation within a social group?
- Attitudes - Role models - Accessibility - Media Coverage - Sexism / stereotyping - Culture/religion/ religious festivals - Family commitments - Available leisure time - Familiarity - Education - Socio-economic factors / disposable income - Adaptability / inclusiveness.
Describe one negative effect that your socio-economic group might have on participation.
An individual from a low socio-economic group will not be very wealthy / so will not be able to take part in activities / that need expensive equipment / or are expensive.
Describe one positive effect that your peer group might have on participation.
If your peer group or friends enjoy taking part in activity and/or appreciate the benefits / they will encourage and motivate others to join in as well.
Why is there a reduction in participation rates amongst young people after they finish organised schooling?
Whilst at school, young people have organised physical education, which is made compulsory by the Government. Additionally, post education young people normally find work to earn money. This means there is less free time to exercise.
What is disability?
Disability is a physical or mental condition that limits a person's movements, senses or activities.
What is the difference between integration and adapted sports?
Integration is when disabled people are fully involved with the full community. Adapted sports are competitive sports for individuals with disabilities. While they are often parallel existing sports played by able-bodied athletes, there may be some modifications in the equipment and rules to meet the needs of the participants.
What are the three types of disability?
- Mobility impairments - Sensory impairments - Mental impairments
What are the benefits of integration for disabled people?
Reduction of the possible discrimination that they cannot participate with able-bodied individuals. Less stereotyping and thus fewer barriers .
Identify four different types of media.
Television, newspaper, magazines, radio, social media, internet.
What is commercialisation?
Commercialisation is the process by which a new product or service is introduced into the general market.
Explain the relationship between sport, sponsorship and the media.
In this relationship the sport is sold to business as a means of advertising the business's product. The business sponsors the sport to obtain advertising space to publicise its product. The sport is shown on the media, which promotes the product, and the sport spectators see the advertising and buy the business's product.
The relationship between sport, sponsorship and the media is known as what...
The golden triangle
In commercialised sport, how does the golden triangle work? (4 marks)
Media uses sport to gain viewers/readers; the media is used by the business for advertising; business pays for media advertising space/time; business pays sport to act as advertising medium; sport must be in media to attract sponsorship.
What are the benefits and disadvantages of this golden triangle? (4 marks)
Benefits to sport: Sport gets money for allowing events to be televised; business pays sports for advertising at grounds/events/sponsorship; sport becomes popularised, so increases the amount of fans. Disadvantages to sport: Media sensationalise sport, and reports dysfunctional aspects. The media may affect the organisation and timing of the sport. Media can change the nature of sport, in respect to the breaks, lengths and method. Only popular sports are televised. Players spend too much time working or focused on appearance. More pressure is put on to win due to the sponsorship pressure.
Name three types of sponsorship.
1. Financial 2. Clothing and equipment, including footwear 3. Facilities 4. Transport
How might financial sponsorship improve an individual's performance?
By having financial sponsorship, the athlete can focus more on training than worrying about ensuring they have enough money to live with.
How might clothing/footwear sponsorship improve an individual's performance?
This provides the athlete with a higher quality running shoe that enables them to run for greater distances with more comfort and grip.
How might equipment sponsorship improve an individual's performance?
This provides the athlete with higher quality balls for example that enables advanced skills to be developed. Additionally, it cold make it easier to catch or grip.
How might facility sponsorship improve an individual's performance?
This provides the athlete with a place to train through free of charge so they can train more effectively and more often.
What is the media?
Main ways in which people communicate collectively.
Explain the main reasons why business's sponsor sports teams.
Publicity Association - to successful teams may deem the sponsor successful. Support - sponsoring local sports teams to help them out. Tax Deductable - business's do not need to pay tax on sponsorship.