3.1.6 Energy and ATP Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 3.1.6 Energy and ATP Deck (30):
1

Why is glucose not a good immediate energy source for a cell?

  • Stable so energy is released slowly.
  • Large amount of energy released - difficult to manage.
  • Many reactions required to release energy.

2

If an inorganic phosphate molecule is added to ADP from a donor molecule we call this...

Substrate-Level Phosphorylation

3

What is the equation for respiration?

Glucose + Oxygen --> Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy (ATP)

4

ATP + Water --> ?

ATP + Water --> ADP + Pi + Energy

5

ADP + Pi + Energy --> ?

ADP + Pi + Energy --> ATP + Water

6

Which enzyme is required to catalyse the hydrolysis of ATP?

ATP Hydrolase (ATPase)

7

What is the function of Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)?

To provide the energy to carry out processes in cells.

8

Describe the bond that holds the outer phosphate group on an ATP molecule.

Weak

Unstable

Easily broken

9

When a inorganic phosphate molecule is added to another molecule we call it...

phosphorylation

10

What are the components of an ATP nucleotide?

Adenine

Ribose

3 Phosphates

11

If an inorganic phosphate molecule is added to ADP during respiration we call this...

Oxidative Phosphorylation

12

What type of reaction is: ATP + Water --> ADP + Pi + Energy

Hydrolysis Reaction

13

What are the components of an ADP nucleotide?

Adenine

Ribose

2 Phosphates

14

Where is the energy in ATP released from?

The bonds between phosphate molecules

15

What does AMP stand for?

Adenosine Monophosphate

16

What does ATP stand for?

Adenosine Triphosphate

17

How is ATP suited to its function as an immediate source of energy for a cell?

  • It's instability means energy can be released quickly.
  • ATP is rapidly reformed from ADP.
  • Small amount of energy released so easy to manage.
  • Only a single hydrolysis reaction tak place for energy release.

18

Energy from respiration takes the form of what?

Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)

19

What does ADP stand for?

Adenosine Diphosphate

20

Can ATP be stored in the body?

No - it is rapidly used so the body must constantly reform it.

21

If an inorganic phosphate molecule is added to ADP during photosynthesis we call this...

Photophosphorylation

22

What type of reaction is: ADP + Pi + Energy --> ATP + Water

Condensation Reaction

23

Which energy requiring process does the body use ATP for?

  • Metabolic processes - making polypeptides form amino acids.
  • Movement - muscle contraction.
  • Active Transport - changing the shape of carrier proteins in cell membranes to move molecules against concentration gradients.
  • Secretion - to form lysosomes so cells can secrete.
  • Activation of Molecules - Phosphates from ATP can be used to phosphorylate other molecules to activate them.

24

Which enzyme is required to catalyse the condensation reaction of ADP + Inorganic phosphate into ATP?

ATP Synthase

25

What doe Pi stand for?

Inorganic phosphate molecule

26

How is ATP resynthesised in cells?

from ADP and phosphate

using ATP synthase

during respiration

27

Give 2 ways the hydrolysis of ATP is used in cells?

1. to provide energy for other reactions

2. to add a phosphate onto molecules - making them more reactive

28

Give 2 ways ATP is  suitable energy source for cells to use?

1. Releases relatively small amount of energy / little energy lost as heat;

2. Releases energy instantaneously;

3. Phosphorylates other compounds, making them more reactive;

4. Can be rapidly re-synthesised;

5. Is not lost from/does not leave cells;

29

state and explain a property of water that can help it buffer temp changes

1. high specific heat capacity

2. can gain or lose a lot of heat without changing temp

3. takes a lot of heat to change the temp

30

name 2 products of ATP hydrolysis

adenosine diphosphate  and phosphate (ADP)