3.2.1.4 - Structure of Prokaryotic Cells Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 3.2.1.4 - Structure of Prokaryotic Cells Deck (48):
1

Identify the missing label.

Q image thumb

Attachment protein

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2

The nucleic acid in a virus is enclosed within a protein coat called a...

capsid

3

Do prokaryotes have a nucelus?

No

4

Most of the success of bacteria is down to...

their small size

5

Plasmids are useful to scientists when they perform

genetic engineering e.g. transfer of human insulin gene to bacterial cells.

6

Sometimes a virus will have an additional layer of lipid called a..

lipid envelope

7

How do bacteria store energy?

  • Glycogen granules
  • Oil droplets

8

Describe the structure of the genetic information of a prokaryotic cell.

  • Main circular strand of DNA not in a nucleus
  • Smaller circular pieces of DNA (plasmids)

9

What is the function of a plasmid?

Small, self replicating circles of DNA that give bbacteria resistance to antibiotics.

10

Attachment proteins can be found where on a virus?

  • In the lipid envelope (if the virus has one)
  • In the capsid (if the virus does not have a lipid envelope.

11

What are the main differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells?

  • Eukaryotic cells are larger
  • The DNA of Eukaryotic cells is found in a nucleus.
  • Eukaryotic cells have organelles with membranes (mitochondria/chloroplasts etc.)

12

Identify the missing label.

Q image thumb

Large circle of DNA

A image thumb
13

What is meant by a membrane bound organelle?

An organelles that has its own phospholipid bilayer.

14

Identify the missing label.

Q image thumb

Lipid envelope

A image thumb
15

Identify the membrane bound organelles of a eukaroytic cell that would not be present in a prokaryotic cell.

  • Mitochondrion
  • Chloroplasts
  • Nucleus
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
  • Golgi apparatus
  • Vacuoles
  • Lysosomes

16

Identify the missing label.

Q image thumb

Genetic material (RNA)

A image thumb
17

Identify the missing label.

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Cell-surface membrane

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18

Identify the missing label.

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Capsule

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19

Identify the missing label.

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Reverse transcriptase enzyme

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20

Identify the missing label.

Q image thumb

Cell wall (containing murein)

A image thumb
21

The outer layer of mucilagionus slime around a bacterial cell is called the...

capsule

22

Do prokaryotic cells contain membrane-bounded organelles e.g. mitochondrion?

No

23

How small are bacteria?

0.1-10 µm

24

Are viruses generally bigger or smaller than bacteria?

smaller

25

The cell wall of bacteria contains a peptidoglycan (polysaccharide chains with peptide cross-links) called...

murein

26

How big is a virus?

20-300 nm

27

Give an example of a prokaryote

Bacteria

28

Are viruses alive?

No as they cannot reproduce without a host. (think MRS GREN)

29

Identify the missing label.

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Ribosome

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30

What is the function of the attachment proteins on a virus?

  • Identificaiton of a host cell.
  • Attachment to a host cell

31

How can some bacterial cells perform photosynthesis if they do not contain chloroplasts?

They contain 'bacterial chlorophyll' which is associated with the memrbane of the bacterial cell.

32

Is the DNA of a prokaryotic cell associated with proteins (histones)?

No

33

Identify the missing label.

Q image thumb

Plasmid

A image thumb
34

Identify the missing label.

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Matrix

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35

Identify the missing label.

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Cytoplasm

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36

Prokaryotic cells contain ______ ribosomes. These are smaller than 80S ribsomes that are found in eukaryotic cells.

70S

37

Identify the missing label.

Q image thumb

Capsid

A image thumb
38

How do bacterial cells divide?

binary fission

39

Desribe 2 aseptic techniques for growing bacteria

keep lid on

wear gloves

wash hands

use sterile pipette

flame the neck of the bottle

flame to innoculating loop

40

contrast a human cell with a bacterial cell

(try and think of 5 key features)

1. Bacterial cell is much smaller than a human cell;

2. Bacterial cell has a cell wall but human cell does not;

3. Bacterial cell lacks a nucleus but human cell has a nucleus;

4. Bacterial cell lacks membrane-bound organelles but human cell has membrane-bound organelles;

5. Bacterial ribosomes smaller than human ribosomes / bacteria have 70S ribosomes whereas humans have 80S ribosomes;

6. Bacterial DNA is circular but human DNA is linear;

7. Bacterial DNA is ‘naked’ whereas human DNA is bound to histones/proteins;

41

Describe how bacteria divide

binary fission

replcation of DNA (circular)

division of cytoplasm to produce 2 DAUGHTER cells

each with a single copy of DNA

42

When growing bacteria, it is grown on agar, why is the agar boiled before pouring agar plates?

to kills unwanted bacteria that could contaminate the plate

43

Give 2 ways in which the DNA of prokaryotic DNA is different to arrangement of DNA in humans

Prokaryotic DNA is

1. Circular (not linear)

2 Not associated with histones/proteins

3. Only ONE piece of DNA

4. Plasmids also present

44

Name the main biological molecule in a bacterial cell wall

murein or glcoprotein or peptidoglycans

45

name the mani  biological molecule in the cell membrane

phospholipid

46

name the process by which prokaryotic cells divide

binary fission

47

compare the DNA in eukaryotes with prokaryotes

nucelotide structure same

joined by phosphodiester bond

DNA same in both

48

contrast the DNA in eukaryotes and prokaryotes

eukaryotic DNA longER

Eukaryotic DNA contains introns prokaryotic DNA does not

eukaryotic DNA linear, prokaryotic circular

eukaryotic DNA associated with proteins, prokaryotic DNA is not