3.4.5 Species and taxonomy Flashcards Preview

SHHS - Science - NEW AQA A-Level Biology (Year 1) > 3.4.5 Species and taxonomy > Flashcards

Flashcards in 3.4.5 Species and taxonomy Deck (34):
1

What are the 5 things courtship behaviours allows individuals to do?

•Recognise members of the same species
•Identify a sexually mature mate
•Form a pair bond that will lead to successful mating and raising of offspring
•Synchronise mating so that it takes place at a time where the egg and sperm are most likely to meet
•Become able to breed by bringing a member of the opposite sex into a state that allows breeding to occur

2

What does classifying animals allow us to do?

Classifying animals allows for:
Better communication
And avoiding confusion

3

What are the 2 types of classification?

•Artificial classification
•Phylogenetic classification

4

What is meant by a hierarchy

Large groups split into smaller groups (which DO NOT overlap)

5

Explain what is meant by a phylogenetic relationship

Shows evolutionary relationship

6

Scientist can use protein structure to investigate the evolutionary relationships between different species. Explain why

The closer the amino acid sequences of 2 organisms the closer their relationship
The amino acid sequence is related to the DNA base triplet sequence

7

Explain what is meant when 2 species are described as being "closely related".

They have DNA in common
And they have a recent common ancestor

8

Explain the principles which biologists use to classify organisms into groups

Large groups are divided into smaller groups
Members of a group have features in common.
Also member of the same group have a similar evolutionary history which is based on fossils

9

Describe how comparisons of biological molecules in 2 species of sea horses could be used to find out if they are closely related

Compare their DNA by comparing their base sequence
To do this do DNA hybridisation by separating dna strands by breaking the hydrogen bonds
The temperature required to separate the strands indicates how close the 2 species are.

Could also compare the amino acid sequence of the proteins in the 2 species
This is called immunological evidence.
So inject seahorse protein into a rabbit and collect the antibodies the rabbit makes.
Then add the antibody mixture into the other seahorse species blood sample
The amount of precipitate indicates how close the relationship of the 2 sea horses

10

What 2 measurements would ecologists need to obtain to calculate an index of diversity of a community

1) the number of individuals of EACH species
2) the totals number of individuals of ALL species

11

A species is

a group of similar organisms capable of breeding and producing fertile offspring

12

The binomial system consists of..

generic and species name

13

grouping organisms together is called

classification

14

The science of classification is called...

taxonomy

15

How many levels of groups are there in classification?

8

16

Each group in classification is called a .

taxon

17

In classification is the largest or smallest group at the top of the hierarchy?

largest

18

The first tax is called

domain

19

Name the 3 domain groups

Eukarya, Bacteria and Archaea

20

The next group below the domain group is the

kingdom

21

Animals are placed in the animal kingdom - these are further grouped into smaller groups called...

phylum

22

the next taxa below phylum is

class

23

the next taxa below class is

order

24

the next taxa below family is

genus

25

the final taxa in the classification system is called

species

26

How many parts does the internationally accepted scientific name have?

2 - its in latin too!

27

The scientific name for organisms has 2 parts - they are...

genus species

28

What does the binomial system help to overcome

confusion using common names

29

What is the purpose of courtship behaviour?

to attract a mate of the SAME species

30

What can be said about the courtship behaviours of organisms that are more closely related?

similarities in their courtship behaviours!

31

courtship behaviours prevents..

interbreeding

32

How are bacteria different to eukarya?

absence of membrane bound organelles
smaller ribosomes
cell wall from murein
single loop DNA (no histones or nucleus)

33

How are archaea different to bacteria?

no murein in cell walls
protein synthesis in archaea like eukaryotes

34

If there are 3 species of bees called
Peponapis pruinosa, Andrena chlorogaster and Andrena piperi - what do their names suggest about their evolutionary relationships?

AC and AP MORE closely related
because they have SAME GENUS -Andrena