4: Healthy term infants Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 4: Healthy term infants Deck (31)
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1

What is the normal range of birth weights?

2.5 - 4.0 kg

2

Under which weight is a baby small for gestational age?

< 2.5 kg

3

Over which weight is a baby large for gestational age?

> 4.0 kg

4

In which point in gestation is most fat laid down?

3rd trimester

So if a baby is pre-term, their % body fat will be low

5

What metabolic disorder does foetal hypoxia lead to?

Metabolic acidosis

6

Which score is used to evaluate how well a newborn has adapted post-birth?

Apgar score

7

What are the criteria in an Apgar score?

HR

RR

Responsiveness

Tone

Colour

0, 1 or 2 for each; scored out of 10

8

Why should babies be kept warm?

Reduces cold stress - hypoglycaemia

Accelerates adapation - reduced pulmonary pressure

9

What sort of contact should babies have with their mothers post-birth?

Skin-to-skin contact

for bonding, breastfeeding, adaptation

10

In the first days after birth, babies will be (hyper/hypo)glycaemic and feed (often / little).

hypoglycaemic

feed little

adequate glycogen reserves

11

Which disease, seen in newborns, requires Vitamin K injections?

Haemorrhagic disease of the newborn

major bleeding disorder

12

How is haemorrhagic disease avoided in newborns?

Vitamin K injection shortly after birth

All babies receive this

13

Which infectious diseases can be passed from a mother to her child?

Hepatitis B & C

HIV

Syphilis

Tuberculosis

Group B Strep

loads more - rubella, CMV...

14

What should you monitor to reduce the risk of a neonate developing sepsis?

NEWS chart

15

What injection are all neonates given shortly after birth?

Vitamin K

16

All newborns will have their ___ checked as part of newborn examination.

hips

for DDH, dodgy hip pathology

17

Which special sense do newborns have tested after birth?

Hearing

to prevent language delay later on

18

Which diseases are screened for by the newborn heel prick test?

Congenital hypothyroidism

Cystic fibrosis

Sickle cell anaemia

Metabolic diseases e.g PKU

19

What is caput?

Cranial oedema seen in neonates

20

___ can distort the sutures and fontanelles in early neonates.

Moulding

21

How is vision screened for in a neonatal examination?

Red reflexes

22

What pathologies most often cause lack of red reflexes in neonates?

Cataracts

Retinoblastoma

23

Which lip / palette malformation should you always be on the lookout for in neonates?

Cleft lip / palette

24

Describe the timing of delivery and weight of babies with foetal alcohol syndrome.

Pre-term delivery

Small for gestational age +/- IUGR

25

What are some of the facial features of foetal alcohol syndrome?

Thin upper lip

Absent philtrum

Epicanthal folds

Small, widely spaced eyes

26

What are signs of respiratory distress in a newborn?

Tachypnoea

Cyanosis

Grunting

Nasal flaring

Indrawing

Sternal/intercostal recession

27

What are the cardiovascular steps in a newborn examination?

Apex

Heaves and thrills

Heart sounds

Femoral pulses

28

Which pulses must you feel for in newborns?

Femoral pulses

29

What is gastroschisis?

Protrusion of bowel from muscle weakness around the umbilicus

30

What is an omphalocele?

Protrusion of bowel from the umbilicus itself