What is the normal range of birth weights?
2.5 - 4.0 kg
Under which weight is a baby small for gestational age?
< 2.5 kg
Over which weight is a baby large for gestational age?
> 4.0 kg
In which point in gestation is most fat laid down?
So if a baby is pre-term, their % body fat will be low
What metabolic disorder does foetal hypoxia lead to?
Which score is used to evaluate how well a newborn has adapted post-birth?
What are the criteria in an Apgar score?
0, 1 or 2 for each; scored out of 10
Why should babies be kept warm?
Reduces cold stress - hypoglycaemia
Accelerates adapation - reduced pulmonary pressure
What sort of contact should babies have with their mothers post-birth?
for bonding, breastfeeding, adaptation
In the first days after birth, babies will be (hyper/hypo)glycaemic and feed (often / little).
adequate glycogen reserves
Which disease, seen in newborns, requires Vitamin K injections?
Haemorrhagic disease of the newborn
major bleeding disorder
How is haemorrhagic disease avoided in newborns?
Vitamin K injection shortly after birth
All babies receive this
Which infectious diseases can be passed from a mother to her child?
Hepatitis B & C
Group B Strep
loads more - rubella, CMV...
What should you monitor to reduce the risk of a neonate developing sepsis?
What injection are all neonates given shortly after birth?
All newborns will have their ___ checked as part of newborn examination.
for DDH, dodgy hip pathology
Which special sense do newborns have tested after birth?
to prevent language delay later on
Which diseases are screened for by the newborn heel prick test?
Sickle cell anaemia
Metabolic diseases e.g PKU
What is caput?
Cranial oedema seen in neonates
___ can distort the sutures and fontanelles in early neonates.
How is vision screened for in a neonatal examination?
What pathologies most often cause lack of red reflexes in neonates?
Which lip / palette malformation should you always be on the lookout for in neonates?
Cleft lip / palette
Describe the timing of delivery and weight of babies with foetal alcohol syndrome.
Small for gestational age +/- IUGR
What are some of the facial features of foetal alcohol syndrome?
Thin upper lip
Small, widely spaced eyes
What are signs of respiratory distress in a newborn?
What are the cardiovascular steps in a newborn examination?
Heaves and thrills
Which pulses must you feel for in newborns?
What is gastroschisis?
Protrusion of bowel from muscle weakness around the umbilicus
What is an omphalocele?
Protrusion of bowel from the umbilicus itself