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Reproduction Week 5 2018/19 > 5: Sick term infants > Flashcards

Flashcards in 5: Sick term infants Deck (22)
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1

When in the 1st trimester are babies most likely to become ill?

First 28 days

2

Which score is used to predict how well a baby will do post-birth?

Apgar score

3

Which mnemonic is helpful for remembering the criteria of an Apgar score?

APGAR

Activity (muscle tone)

Pulse (heart rate)

Grimace (responsiveness)

Appearance (colour)

Respiration (resp. rate)

4

What is a normal foetal heart rate?

120 - 160 bpm

5

What is a normal foetal resp. rate?

40 - 60 / min

6

Babies and children more commonly suffer (cardio / resp.) failure.

respiratory failure

7

What are four likely reasons for illness in babies?

Infection

Congenital abnormalities

Complicated birth --> Foetal hypoxia

Metabolic problems

8

What is the most common bacterial infection in babies?

Group B Strep

9

Which condition is caused by foetal hypoxia and results in a poor Apgar score?

Hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy

10

Apart from those related to the foetal circulation (PFO, PDA), what are some rare congenital heart diseases?

Tetralogy of Fallot

Transposition of the great vessels

Coarctation of the aorta

Hypoplastic heart

TAPVD

11

What is the presentation of hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy?

Multi-organ failure

CNS symptoms - fluctuating HR and RR, poor tone, absent reflexes, seizures

12

How is hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy managed?

Cooling under sedation and ventilation

GIves brain time to develop and repair

13

What causes transient tachypnoea in some newborns?

Inadequate fluid clearance from the lungs

e.g in premature or C section babies

14

In which newborn disease does fluid accumulate in body cavities?

Hydrops foetalis

15

What are some examples of abnormal fluid collections seen in hydrops foetalis?

Pleural effusions

Pericardial effusions

Ascites

16

Which autoimmune disease can cause hydrops foetalis?

Rhesus disease

17

Which respiratory disease can be seen in babies who haven't fully adapted yet?

Persistent pulmonary hypertension (PPH)

18

Which congenital syndrome is associated with renal hypoplasia / absence?

Potter's syndrome

19

The kidneys are involved in the production of which fluid?

Amniotic fluid

20

Which foetal disease occurs if the kidneys fail to develop?

Oligohydramnios

Lack of amniotic fluid

21

What is the presentation of Potter's syndrome in a newborn?

Can you explain each symptom?

Respiratory distress - undeveloped lungs due to lack of amniotic fluid

Unusual facial appearance - high pressure of the uterus, no cushioning from amniotic fluid

Muscle contractures - ""

22

What is the prognosis of Potter's syndrome?

Incompatible with life