When in the 1st trimester are babies most likely to become ill?
First 28 days
Which score is used to predict how well a baby will do post-birth?
Which mnemonic is helpful for remembering the criteria of an Apgar score?
Activity (muscle tone)
Pulse (heart rate)
Respiration (resp. rate)
What is a normal foetal heart rate?
120 - 160 bpm
What is a normal foetal resp. rate?
40 - 60 / min
Babies and children more commonly suffer (cardio / resp.) failure.
What are four likely reasons for illness in babies?
Complicated birth --> Foetal hypoxia
What is the most common bacterial infection in babies?
Group B Strep
Which condition is caused by foetal hypoxia and results in a poor Apgar score?
Hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy
Apart from those related to the foetal circulation (PFO, PDA), what are some rare congenital heart diseases?
Tetralogy of Fallot
Transposition of the great vessels
Coarctation of the aorta
What is the presentation of hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy?
CNS symptoms - fluctuating HR and RR, poor tone, absent reflexes, seizures
How is hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy managed?
Cooling under sedation and ventilation
GIves brain time to develop and repair
What causes transient tachypnoea in some newborns?
Inadequate fluid clearance from the lungs
e.g in premature or C section babies
In which newborn disease does fluid accumulate in body cavities?
What are some examples of abnormal fluid collections seen in hydrops foetalis?
Which autoimmune disease can cause hydrops foetalis?
Which respiratory disease can be seen in babies who haven't fully adapted yet?
Persistent pulmonary hypertension (PPH)
Which congenital syndrome is associated with renal hypoplasia / absence?
The kidneys are involved in the production of which fluid?
Which foetal disease occurs if the kidneys fail to develop?
Lack of amniotic fluid
What is the presentation of Potter's syndrome in a newborn?
Can you explain each symptom?
Respiratory distress - undeveloped lungs due to lack of amniotic fluid
Unusual facial appearance - high pressure of the uterus, no cushioning from amniotic fluid
Muscle contractures - ""
What is the prognosis of Potter's syndrome?
Incompatible with life