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Reproduction Week 5 2018/19 > 6: Preterm infants > Flashcards

Flashcards in 6: Preterm infants Deck (34)
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1

Before which point in gestation is a birth pre-term?

37 weeks

2

Birth before ___ weeks is incompatible with life.

22 weeks

3

Fatal birth before 22 weeks is also known as what?

Foetal loss

or Miscarriage

4

At which point in gestation is a birth at term?

38 - 42 weeks

5

Pre-term babies are more likely to have a (high / low) birth weight.

low birth weight

6

Which lifestyle choice has an effect on the rates of pre-term delivery?

Smoking

Smoking ban saw a 10% decrease in pre-term births

7

What is a neonatal death?

Death within the first four weeks of life

8

Which type of pregnancy is associated with pre-term birth?

Multiple pregnancy

Ferguson reflex - increased distension of uterine walls

9

The majority of pre-term births are ___ in origin.

idiopathic

nobody knows why

10

Having more than one baby in the womb is a common cause of ___ delivery.

pre-term

11

A history of ___ delivery increases a woman's risk of pre-term delivery.

pre-term delivery

cumulative effect

12

Pre-term babies are more vulnerable to ___ stress, have less developed ___ and are more likely to be (hyper/hypo)glycaemic.

vulnerable to cold stress - less brown fat

less developed lung - less surfactant

hypoglycaemic - less glycogen reserves

13

What is the purpose of delayed cord clamping?

Allows maximum volume of blood to transfer from mother to baby

--> reduce chances of anaemia, hypovolaemia

14

What does cold stress lead to in premature babies?

Hypothermia

15

How does hypothermia cause hypoglycaemia in babies?

Increased non-shivering thermogenesis

Which uses glycogen stores

When glycogen is depleted, free circulating glucose is used up

> Hypoglycaemia

16

How does hypothermia cause hypoxia in premature babies?

Increased oxygen demand due to increased thermogenesis

Hypoxia and metabolic acidosis (anaerobic respiration)

17

How are pre-term babies initially fed?

Parenteral nutrition

18

What is the risk of parenteral feeding in pre-term babies?

Infection

As it involves IV access

19

Which disease, involving widespread ischaemia of the bowel, can be treated using parenteral nutrition?

Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC)

20

What is the ideal form of feeding for babies?

Exclusive breastfeeding

21

If a mother can't breastfeed, what forms of nutrition can be offered to pre-term babies?

Donor milk

Formula milk

22

What can untreated infection cause in neonates?

Neonatal sepsis

23

What are the two forms of neonatal sepsis seen in babies?

Early onset - probably acquired during pregnancy / birth

Late onset - acquired post-birth

24

What are the most common bacteria causing

a) early-onset

b) late-onset neonatal sepsis?

a) Group B Strep, Coliforms

b) Coagulase negative Staph i.e Staph epidermidis

25

What causes respiratory distress in pre-mature babies?

Lack of pulmonary surfactant

26

Which abnormal breathing patterns can pre-mature babies present with?

Transient tachpynoea

Apnoea

27

How does a baby with respiratory distress present?

Cyanosis

Tachypnoea

Intercostal/sternal recession

Nasal flaring

Grunting

28

How is a baby with respiratory distress managed?

Steroids

Ventilation

CPAP

29

What appearance do the lungs have on CXR in a baby with respiratory distress?

Ground glass appearance

30

None of the blood in the foetal circulation has a large oxygen concentration.

What helps a baby to get around this?

Foetal Hb