Which anti-emetic drug, given in the 1960s, causes birth defects?
What is the rate of miscarriage in the general population?
25% of women will have a miscarriage during their lifetimes
Should pregnant woman not take any drugs?
Need to weigh benefits vs risks
What alternative therapies could you consider instead of prescribing a drug for a pregnant woman?
Most drugs (are / aren't) licensed for use in pregnant women.
What are the principles of prescribing in pregnancy?
Benefit > Risk
Low dose monotherapy
Avoid high risk drugs e.g warfarin
Does warfarin cross the placenta?
And it's teratogenic
Does heparin cross the placenta?
And it isn't teratogenic
What common condition in pregnancy may affect the absorption of a drug?
Women tend to (gain / lose) weight during pregnancy.
affecting the drug's volume of distribution
What doses of folic acid are given to
a) low risk
b) high risk
women before and during pregnancy?
a) 400 micrograms
b) 5 milligrams
Which cholesterol-lowering drugs cause birth defects?
What are some examples of chronic conditions which women may have before pregnancy?
Cardiovascular disease (e.g high cholesterol, HTN)
During which period is a foetus at greatest risk of harm from drugs?
0 - 12 weeks
At which point in gestation do women usually realise they're pregnant?
i.e they've been taking the teratogenic drug(s) without knowing they're pregnant
Which teratogenic drugs are used in hypertension and cause renal hypoplasia?
Which drug, used in RA, causes birth defects?
Which drugs, used in severe acne, cause birth defects?
Which drugs cause respiratory depression and sedation in newborns?
Why might they be prescribed?
Maternal pain relief
Apart from respiratory depression, what might be seen in newborn babies whose mothers have been taking opioids?
Pregnancy and its associated symptoms can lower the ___ ___ in epilepsy.
Which anti-epileptic drugs should be avoided in pregnancy?
Phenytoin - terminates status epilepticus
What dose of folic acid should a woman with epilepsy receive during pregnancy?
All anti-epileptic drugs have possibility of causing neural tube defects
What percentage of women on anti-epileptics don't suffer foetal abnormalities?
___ control of diabetes may cause birth defects.
Which drug used in diabetes is contraindicated in pregnancy?
Which drugs, used in adult hypertension, should be avoided in pregnancy?
Which drugs are used to treat pregnancy-induced hypertension?
ACEIs and ARBs cause what kind of birth defect?
Renal hypoplasia / absence
Which anti-emetic is given first line for morning sickness?