4.4 Larynx Flashcards Preview

Gross Anatomy > 4.4 Larynx > Flashcards

Flashcards in 4.4 Larynx Deck (49):
1

What are the 3 unpaired cartilages?

thyroid, cricoid, and epiglottis

2

What are the 3 paired cartilages?

Arytenoid, corniculate, cuneiform

3

What part of the thyroid cartilage articulates with cricoid cartilage?

inferior horns of thyroid cartilage

4

What attaches to the oblique line of the thyroid cartilage? (3)

sternothyroid, thyrohyoid, and inferior constrictor mm.

5

What does the cricoid cartilage have superior articular facets for?

arytenoid cartilages

6

Where is the inferior end of the epiglottis attached?

back of thyroid cartilage via thyroepiglottic ligament

7

What tethers the epiglottis to the root of the tongue and facilitates epiglottic closure during swallowing?

glossoepiglottic ligament (median glossoepiglottic fold)

8

What do the anterior vocal processes of the arytenoid cartilages give attachment to?

vocal ligament and vocalis m.

9

What do the posterolateral muscular processes give attachment to?

thyroarytenoid, lateral and posterior cricoarytenoid mm.

10

Contraction of musculature results in swiveling of arytenoid cartilages to modify shape and size of ...., to control ...

glottis, to control phonation

11

What cartilage sits ontop of the arytenoid cartilages, and are within the aryepiglottic folds?

corniculate cartilages

12

What cartilages are enclosed in the aryepiglottic folds but do not articulate with other laryngeal cartilages?

cuneiform cartilages

13

Why is the thyrohyoid membrane important for swallowing?

allows for elevation of larynx during swallowing for passage of bolus

14

What extends from the posterior surface of the thyroid cartilage to the vocal process of the arytenoid cartilage?

Vocal ligament

15

What is the upper border of the conus elastics?

vocal ligament

16

What extends from the thyroid cartilage to the anterior lateral surface of the arytenoid cartilage (lateral aspect of corniculate cartilage)?

vestibular ligament

17

What 3 ligaments form the conus elastics (cricovocal ligament)?

cricothyroid, median cricothyroid, and vocal ligaments

18

Extends from the laryngeal inlet to the false vocal fold (vestibular folds)

vestibule of the larynx

19

Extend between the false vocal fold (ventricular fold) and the true vocal fold (vocal fold)

ventricles of the larynx

20

The space between the vocal folds and arytenoid cartilages and the narrowest portion of the laryngeal cavity

rima glottidis

21

extend from the rima glottidis to the lower border of the cricoid cartilage

infraglottic cavity

22

extend from the thyroid cartilage above the vocal ligament to the arytenoid cartilage

vestibular folds (false vocal cords)

23

Extend from the angle of the thyroid cartilage to the vocal processes of the arytenoid cartilages

vocal folds (true vocal cords)

24

The rima glottides is wide during...

inspiration

25

The rima glottides is narrow during ...

expiration

26

What are the tensors of the larynx? (2)

cricothyroid m., and vocalis m.

27

What is the innervation of the cricothyroid m.?

external laryngeal branch from sup. laryngeal n.

28

What other actions does the vocalis m. have on the larynx besides tensing it?

adducts and relaxes (to modulate pitch)

29

What is cut in an emergency cricothyrotomy?

median cricothyroid ligament

30

What mucosal folds bound the laryngeal inlet?

aryepiglottic folds

31

What muscle abducts the larynx?

posterior cricoarytenoid m.

32

What muscles adduct the larynx? (6)

lateral cricoarytenoid m., transverse and oblique arytenoid mm., aryepiglottic m., thyroarytenoid m., thyroepiglottic m.

33

What muscle is a weak adductor, pulls epiglottis downward closing laryngeal inlet (during swallowing)

aryepiglottic m.

34

What weak adductor m. also relaxes the vocal cords (pulls arytenoids anteriorly)?

thyroarytenoid m.

35

Most of the blood is delivered by what artery (upper larynx)?

superior laryngeal a.

36

What is the superior laryngeal a. a branch of?

superior thyroid a. from ECA

37

Where does the lower larynx receive blood from?

inferior laryngeal a.

38

What is the inferior laryngeal a. a branch off of?

inferior thyroid a. from thyrocervical trunk

39

What innervates the mucosa over the vestibular folds (false) and the ventricle?

internal laryngeal n.

40

What innervates the laryngeal vestibule mucosa?

internal laryngeal n.

41

What innervates the mucosa of the infraglottic cavity?

inferior laryngeal n.

42

What type of nerve is the internal laryngeal n., sensory/motor/mixed?

sensory to mucous membranes above vocal cords

43

What type of nerve is the external laryngeal n., sensory/motor/mixed, and what does it innervate?

Motor - cricothyroid m. and inf. constrictor mm.

44

What artery accompanies the external laryngeal n.?

sup. thyroid a.

45

What type of nerve is the inferior laryngeal n., sensory/motor/mixed, and what does it innervate?

mixed: motor - all intrinsic m. of larynx except cricothyroid; sensory - below vocal cord

46

How would a unilateral lesion of the recurrent laryngeal n. present?

hoarseness

47

How would a bilateral lesion of the recurrent laryngeal n. present?

breathlessness

48

What vein and artery must be avoided in a tracheostomy?

inferior thyroid veins, and thyroid ima a.

49

In children, what organ must be avoided when performing a tracheostomy?

thymus