Flashcards in 4.2 Pharynx Deck (59):
Where is the larynx, nasal cavity, and oral cavity located in relation to the pharynx?
Anterior to pharynx
The nasopharynx extends posterolaterally as the ...
What does the nasopharynx communicate with the oropharynx through?
pharyngeal isthmus (space between uvula and post. pharyngeal wall)
What does the nasopharynx communicate with the middle ear cavity through?
opening of auditory tube (pharyngotympanic tube)
Pharyngeal end of the cartilaginous part of auditory tube covered with mucus membrane
Mucus fold extended from torus tubarius; caused by underlining muscle of the same name
What are the 2 tonsils of the nasopharynx cavity?
pharyngeal and tubal tonsils (over torus tubarius)
What tonsil is called an adenoid when enlarged and where is it found?
pharyngeal tonsil; base of skull, pharyngeal recess
What is the oropharynx superior to?
upper margin of epiglottis
Through what does the oropharynx communicate with the oral cavity?
oropharyngeal isthmus between the two arches
What is the anterior pillar of the throat, and the larger arch, caused by underlining muscle of the same name?
Palatoglossal arch (fold)
What is the posterior pillar of the throat, and the smaller arch, caused by underlining muscle of the same name?
Where is the palatine tonsil?
half embedded in the tonsillar bed, between the 2 arches
What are the depressions (the line of mucosal reflection of the tongue onto the ant. epiglottis) on either side of the media glossoepiglottic fold called?
What are coanae, and what 2 anatomical areas do they separate?
posterior nasal apertures; between nasal cavity and nasopharynx
The laryngopharynx is posterior to the larynx, extending from the upper margin of the epiglottis to the ...
inferior border of cricoid cartilage, where it is continuous with esophagus
Through what opening does the laryngopharynx communicate with the larynx?
laryngeal adieus (inlet), formed by epiglottis and mucous folds
What are the depressions on either side of the larynx called, that correspond to the spot on the thyrohyoid membrane where internal laryngeal n. and superior laryngeal a. pierce it?
What tonsils make up Waldeyer's pharyngeal lymphoid ring?
Pharyngeal, Tubal, Palatine, and Lingual
Where is the lingual tonsil located?
posterior aspect of tongue
What anatomical landmark is slightly superior to the piriform recess on either side?
greater horn of hyoid bone
What are the 4 layers that make up the pharyngeal wall from superficial to deep?
1. Buccopharyngeal fascia
2. Pharyngeal mm.
3. Pharyngobasilar fascia
4. Pharyngeal mucosa
Which layer can be seen in isolation superiorly and inferiorly from the back of the pharynx?
What is the primary innervation for the constrictor and longitudinal muscles of the pharynx, except stylopharyngeus m.?
pharyngeal branches of CN X via pharyngeal plexus
Where does the superior constrictor m. arise from?
Primarily: pterygomandibular raphe (ligament)
Sup: lower 1/3 of posterior border of medial pterygoid plate
Inf: alveolar process of mandible
What does the superior constrictor m. attach to?
median raphe on the posterior pharyngeal wall
Which muscle is positioned in the plane continuous with the sup. constrictor m. and deviates laterally allowing the internal wall of the oral cavity to be continuous with the pharynx?
What innervates the buccinator m.?
Where does the middle constrictor m. arise from?
upper margin of greater horn and posterior margin of lesser horn of hyoid bone
What does the middle constrictor m. attach to?
posterior median raphe
What passes the gap between middle and superior constrictors?
What passes the gap between the middle and inferior constrictors?
internal laryngeal n. (X); part of thyrohyoid membrane)
Where does the inferior constrictor m. arise from?
Primarily: oblique line of thyroid cartilage
Additionally: side of cricoid cartilage and posterior border of cricothryoid membrane
What does the inferior constrictor m. attach to?
posterior median raphe
What does the inferior margin of the inferior constrictor muscle define the end and beginning of?
end of pharyngeal mm. and beginning of esophagus
What passes under the inferior margin on each side, to enter the larynx?
recurrent laryngeal n. and changes its name to inferior laryngeal n.
What is the function of the palatoglossus m.?
causes palatoglossal fold
What is the function of the palatopharyngeus m.?
causes palatopharyngeal fold; elevates pharynx and larynx during swallowing
What is the function of the salpingopharyngeus m.?
distorts the cartilaginous auditory tube during swallowing and/or yawning, resulting in a momentary opening of the auditory tube (causes a "popping" sound)
The stylopharyngeus m. passes between what 2 structures?
ICA and ECA
The stylopharyngeus m. passes through the gap between what 2 constrictor mm. to enter the pharynx?
superior and middle
The stylopharyngeus m. partially blends with the constrictor mm. and further extends inferiorly to the ...
superior horn of thyroid cartilage of the larynx
What is the function of the stylopharyngeus m.?
raises and dilates the pharynx and helps raise the larynx
What innervates the stylopharyngeus m.?
glossopharyngeal n. CN IX
What nerve does the sensory innervation of the pharyngeal mucosa of the nasopharynx?
pharyngeal branch of maxillary n. (V2)
What nerve does the sensory innervation of the pharyngeal mucosa of the oropharynx and laryngopharynx?
pharyngeal branch of CN IX
What nerve does the sensory innervation of the pharyngeal mucosa of the laryngeal inlet and anterior aspect of the epiglottis?
internal branch of superior laryngeal n. (CN X)
The glossopharyngeal n. enters the pharynx deep to what?
palatine tonsil (tonsillar bed)
What does the glossopharyngeal n. supply with general and special sensory innervation?
posterior 1/3rd of tongue
What 3 things contribute to the pharyngeal plexus and what are their fiber types?
pharyngeal branch of vagus n. (brachial motor fibers), pharyngeal branch of glossopharyngeal n. (sensory and motor to stylopharyngeus), and superior cervical ganglion (postganglionic sympathetic = vasomotor fibers)
What does the pharyngeal venous plexus drain into?
pterygoid venous plexus and near by part of IJV
What muscles are active during the oral stage of swallowing, and what is their action?
extrinsic and intrinsic mm. of tongue pushes bolus of food through oropharyngeal isthmus into oropharynx
What muscles are active during the pharyngeal stage of swallowing, and what is their action? (2 parts)
levator and tensor vili palatini mm. elevate and close the pharyngeal isthmus to isolate the alimentary passageway from the respiratory.
Longitudinal pharyngeal mm. and supra hyoid mm. raise the larynx so the epiglottis passively falls down and closes the laryngeal aditus
What muscles are active during the pharyngo-esophageal stage of swallowing, and what is their action?
pharyngeal constrictor mm. through peristaltic contraction pushes the bolus of food down into the esophagus, which then takes over.
Injury to which cranial nerves would affect the pharyngeal stage of swallowing?
pharyngeal branch of CN X and V3
Injury to which cranial nerves would affect the pharyngo-esophageal stage of swallowing?
pharyngeal branch of CN X
Which nerve is involved in the beginning/sensory response of the gag reflex?
Which nerve is involved in the motor response of the gag reflex?